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Taoism
TAOISM (/ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ ), also known as DAOISM, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(道, literally "Way", also romanized as Dao ). The Tao
Tao
is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism
Taoism
differs from Confucianism
Confucianism
by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures : 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility". The roots of Taoism
Taoism
go back at least to the 4th century BCE
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Vietnamese Alphabet
The VIETNAMESE ALPHABET (Vietnamese : chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language
Vietnamese language
. It uses the Latin script
Latin script
, based on its employment in the alphabets of Romance languages
Romance languages
, in particular the Portuguese alphabet , with some digraphs and the addition of nine accent marks or diacritics – four of them to create additional sounds, and the other five to indicate the tone of each word. The many diacritics, often two on the same vowel, make written Vietnamese easily recognizable
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Chữ Hán
Until the beginning of the 20th century, government and scholarly documents in Vietnam were written in classical Chinese (Vietnamese: cổ văn 古文 or văn ngôn 文言 ), using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
with Vietnamese approximation of Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
pronunciations. At the same time popular novels and poetry in Vietnamese were written in the chữ nôm script, which used Chinese characters
Chinese characters
for Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and an adapted set of characters for the native vocabulary. The two scripts coexisted until the era of French Indochina
French Indochina
when the Latin alphabet quốc ngữ script gradually became the written medium of both government and popular literature
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Old Chinese
OLD CHINESE, also called ARCHAIC CHINESE in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese , and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese . The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the Analects
Analects
, the Mencius , and the Zuozhuan . These works served as models for Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese
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Middle Chinese
MIDDLE CHINESE or the QIEYUN SYSTEM (QYS), formerly known as ANCIENT CHINESE, is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun , a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The Swedish linguist Bernard Karlgren believed that the dictionaries recorded a speech standard of the capital Chang\'an of the Sui and Tang dynasties . However, based on the more recently recovered preface of the Qieyun, most scholars now believe that it records a compromise between northern and southern reading and poetic traditions from the late Northern and Southern dynasties period. This composite system contains important information for the reconstruction of the preceding system of Old Chinese phonology (1st millennium BC). The fanqie method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice
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Taiwanese Romanization System
The TAIWANESE ROMANIZATION SYSTEM (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese : 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin : Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as TâI-Lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
and since 2006 has been officially promoted by Taiwan
Taiwan
's Ministry of Education . It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using ts tsh j instead of c ch j for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/
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Hangul
HANGUL (/ˈhɑːnˌɡuːl/ HAHN-gool ; from Korean hangeul 한글 ) is the Korean alphabet, which has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great . It is the official writing system of South Korea
South Korea
and North Korea
North Korea
. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin
Jilin
Province , China
China
. It is also sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Bau-Bau , Indonesia
Indonesia
. The alphabet consists of 19 consonants and 21 vowels . Instead of being written sequentially, like the letters of the Latin alphabet , Hangul
Hangul
letters are grouped into syllabic blocks
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Hanja
HANJA ( Hangul
Hangul
: 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: ) is the Korean name
Korean name
for Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(Chinese : 漢字; pinyin : hànzì). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language
Korean language
with Korean pronunciation . Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo (the latter is more used) refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja
Hanja
never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏
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Hiragana
HIRAGANA (平仮名, ひらがな) is a Japanese syllabary , one component of the Japanese writing system , along with katakana , kanji , and in some cases rōmaji ( Latin script ). It is a phonetic lettering system. The word hiragana literally means "ordinary" or "simple" kana ("simple" originally as contrasted with kanji). Hiragana
Hiragana
and katakana are both kana systems. With one or two minor exceptions, each sound in the Japanese language
Japanese language
(strictly, each mora ) is represented by one character (or one digraph) in each system. This may be either a vowel such as "a" (hiragana あ); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (か); or "n" (ん), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n, or ng (), or like the nasal vowels of French
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Kanji
KANJI (漢字; Japanese pronunciation: listen ) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that are used in the Japanese writing system . They are used alongside hiragana and katakana . The Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters
Chinese characters
literally means "Han characters". It is written with the same term and characters in the Chinese language
Chinese language
to refer to the character writing system, hanzi (漢字)
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McCune–Reischauer
MCCUNE–REISCHAUER ROMANIZATION ( /məˈkuːn ˈraɪ.ʃaʊ.ər/ ) is one of the two most widely used Korean language
Korean language
romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
was the official romanization system in South Korea
South Korea
until 2000, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean
Romanization of Korean
system. A variant of McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
is still used as the official system in North Korea . The system was created in 1937 by George M. McCune and Edwin O. Reischauer . With a few exceptions, it attempts not to transliterate Korean hangul but to represent the phonetic pronunciation. McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
is widely used outside Korea
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Revised Romanization Of Korean
The REVISED ROMANIZATION OF KOREAN (국어의 로마자 표기법; gugeoui romaja pyogibeop; lit. "Roman-letter notation of the national language") is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea
South Korea
proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
system. The new system eliminates diacritics in favor of digraphs and adheres more closely to Korean phonology than to a suggestive rendition of Korean phonetics for non-native speakers. The Revised Romanization limits itself to the ISO basic Latin alphabet , apart from limited, often optional use of the hyphen . It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min
Southern Min
Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
Hokkien

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Hokkien
HOKKIEN-TAIWANESE (/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/ ; from Chinese : 福建話; pinyin : Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
: Hok-kiàn-oē) or MINNAN PROPER (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and other parts of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, and by other overseas Chinese . Hokkien
Hokkien
originated in southern Fujian , the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The SPELLING OF GWOYEU ROMATZYH (GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials , finals and tones . GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
and . The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin
Pinyin
should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations . Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Hanyu Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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