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Tannersville Cranberry Bog
The Tannersville Cranberry
Cranberry
Bog
Bog
or Cranberry
Cranberry
Swamp, is a sphagnum bog on the Cranberry
Cranberry
Creek in Tannersville, Pennsylvania. It is the southernmost boreal bog east of the Mississippi River, containing many black spruce and tamarack trees at the southern limit of their ranges. Technically, it can be classed as an acid fen, as it receives some groundwater flow. The site was designated a National Natural Landmark in December 1974.[1] It was purchased by The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy
and the Conservation and Research Foundation[2] in 1957. Like many bogs, its terrain presents an image of solidity, but a liquid mass of decaying peat lies beneath a six-inch (152 mm) layer of sphagnum and a network of supporting tree roots
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Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(/ˌpɛnsɪlˈveɪniə/ ( listen); Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware
Delaware
to the southeast, Maryland
Maryland
to the south, West Virginia
West Virginia
to the southwest, Ohio
Ohio
to the west, Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey
New Jersey
to the east. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is the 33rd-largest, the 5th-most populous, and the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 United States
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Orchids
The Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants. The Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera.[2][3] The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species
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Sedges
About 109 (not all listed here)The Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes. The family is large, with some 5,500 known species described in about 90 genera,[2][3] the largest being the Carex
Carex
genus of "true sedges"[4][5] with over 2,000 species.[6] These species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia
Asia
and tropical South America. While sedges may be found growing in almost all environments, many are associated with wetlands, or with poor soils
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Cotton Grass
Eriophorum (cottongrass, cotton-grass or cottonsedge) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cyperaceae, the sedge family. They are found throughout the arctic, subarctic and temperate portions of the Northern Hemisphere in acid bog habitats, being particularly abundant in Arctic tundra regions.[2][3][4][5] They are herbaceous perennial plants with slender, grass-like leaves. The seed heads are covered in a fluffy mass of cotton which are carried on the wind to aid dispersal. In cold Arctic regions, these masses of translucent fibres also serve as 'down' – increasing the temperature of the reproductive organs during the Arctic summer by trapping solar radiation.[6] Paper and the wicks of candles have been made of its cotton, and pillows stuffed with the same material. The leaves were formerly used in diarrhea, and the spongy pith of the stem for the removal of tapeworm.[7] Selected species[edit] The following species are included:[5][1]Eriophorum angustifolium Honck
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Yellow-eyed Grass
Xyris, the yelloweyed grasses, is a genus of flowering plants in the yellow-eyed-grass family. The genus counts over two hundred fifty species, widespread over much of the world, with the center of distribution in the Guianas.[2][3][4]Stand of mostly Xyris complanata in a small wetlandThe leaves are mostly distichous, linear, flat and thin or round with a conspicuous sheath at the base. They are arranged in a basal aggregation. The small, yellow flowers are dioecious, borne on a spherical or cylindrical spike or head (inflorescence). Each flower grows from the axil of a leathery bract. The fruit is a non-fleshy, dehiscent capsule
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Pitcher Plant
Pitcher plants are several different carnivorous plants which have modified leaves known as pitfall traps—a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with digestive liquid. The traps of what are considered to be "true" pitcher plants are created from modified leaves; however they are not simply folded into a tube, and the process is far more complex. They attract insects by using sweet, delicious nectar causing them to drown in it.[1]Contents1 Types 2 Feeding behavior 3 Evolution
Evolution
of the form 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksTypes[edit] The term "pitcher plant" generally refers to members of the Nepenthaceae
Nepenthaceae
and Sarraceniaceae
Sarraceniaceae
families, but similar pitfall traps are employed by the monotypic Cephalotaceae
Cephalotaceae
and some members of the Bromeliaceae
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Sundew
Drosera, commonly known as the sundews, is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants, with at least 194 species.[1] These members of the family Droseraceae
Droseraceae
lure, capture, and digest insects using stalked mucilaginous glands covering their leaf surfaces. The insects are used to supplement the poor mineral nutrition of the soil in which the plants grow
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Labrador Tea
Labrador tea is a common name for the three closely related plant species and the name of an herbal tea made from the plants: All three species are primarily wetland plants in the heath family. The herbal tea has been a favorite beverage among Athabaskan, First Nations, and Inuit people.[citation needed]Contents1 Description about the plant 2 Uses 3 Toxicology 4 Harvesting 5 ReferencesDescription about the plant[edit] All three species used to make Labrador tea are low, slow-growing shrubs with evergreen leaves:Rhododendron tomentosum (Northern Labrador tea, previously Ledum palustre), Rhododendron groenlandicum, (Bog Labrador tea, previously Ledum groenlandicum or Ledum latifolium) and Rhododendron neoglandulosum, (Western Labrador tea, or trapper's tea, previously Ledum glandulosum).The leaves are smooth on top with often wrinkled edges, and fuzzy white to red-brown underneath.[1] R. tomentosum, R. groenlandicum, and R
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Golden-club
Orontium aquaticum /ɒˈrɒntiəm/, sometimes called golden-club,[1] floating arum, never-wets or tawkin,[2] is a species of flowering plants in the Araceae family. It is the single living species in the genus Orontium, which also contains several extinct species described from fossils.[3] O. aquaticum is endemic to the eastern United States[1] and is found growing in ponds, streams, and shallow lakes. It prefers an acidic environment. The leaves are pointed and oval with a water repellent surface. The inflorescence is most notable for having an extremely small almost indistinguishable sheath surrounding the spadix. Very early in the flowering this green sheath withers away leaving only the spadix
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Orontium
Orontium /ɒˈrɒntiəm/, sometimes called golden-club,[1] is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae. The single living species in the genus is Orontium aquaticum, while the two other described species, Orontium mackii and Orontium wolfei, are known from fossils.[2] Orontium mackii is the geologically oldest species described, with fossils of the species being found in the Jose Creek member of the McRae Formation in New Mexico. The formation is dated to the Late Cretaceous, possibly the Maastrichtian. The species is noted for having a simpler vein structure in the leaves then is seen in either O. wolfei or O. aquaticum. Two of the outcrops where the species was found are preserved volcanic ash beds which hosted long term standing water. however a third outcrop is that of a well drained floodplain with no evidence of standing water. This indicates the possibility that O. mackii was not an obligate hydrophyte. The second fossil species O
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Lygodium Palmatum
Lygodium palmatum is the only species of its genus native to North America. Unlike most species in the genus, this one, called the American climbing fern[1] (or Hartford fern, after Hartford, Connecticut), is extremely hardy in temperate zones. This fern is on endangered or threatened species lists in several states. It requires constant moisture, high light levels, and intensely acid soil to thrive. Its range is essentially Appalachian, ranging from New England down through the Appalachians, Piedmont and Appalachian plateaus into the American south. References[edit]^ "Lygodium palmatum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 25 June 2015. Lellinger, David B. A Field Manual of the Ferns & Fern Allies of the United States & Canada. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 1985.External links[edit] "Climbing Fern". New International Encyclopedia
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Lygodium
See text Lygodium
Lygodium
(climbing fern) is a genus of about 40 species of ferns, native to tropical regions across the world, with a few temperate species in eastern Asia
Asia
and eastern North America. It is the sole genus in the family Lygodiaceae, though included in the family Schizaeaceae
Schizaeaceae
by some botanists. They are unusual in that the rachis, or midrib, of the frond is thin, flexible, and long, the frond unrolling with indeterminate growth and the rachis twining around supports, so that each frond forms a distinct vine. The fronds may be from 3–12 m (9.8–39.4 ft) long, depending on the species.[citation needed] Some Lygodium
Lygodium
species are now considered very problematic invasive weeds in the southeastern United States
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Calopogon
Calopogon, grass pink, is a genus of terrestrial orchids (family Orchidaceae). The generic name is from Greek and means "beautiful beard", referring to the cluster of hairs adorning the labellum. The five species are native to the eastern United States, eastern Canada, Cuba and the Bahamas.[1] The genus Calopogon is abbreviated Cpg in trade journals. Calopogon, like many other orchids, is an indicator species for good remnant hydrology. This means that their presence is an indication of high-quality ground and surface water. Most species of Calopogon frequent wet, sunny swales, bogs, and the edges of marshy areas, and associates with ferns, sedges, grasses and forbs. Calopogon oklahomensis has been observed in drier areas than Calopogon tuberosus would prefer. One distinguishing feature of the grass pinks is that, unlike most orchids, they are non-resupinate
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Mistletoe
Mistletoe
Mistletoe
is the English common name for most obligate hemiparasitic plants in the order Santalales. They are attached to their host tree or shrub by a structure called the haustorium, through which they absorb water and nutrients from the host plant. The name mistletoe originally referred to the species Viscum album (European mistletoe, of the family Santalaceae
Santalaceae
in the order Santalales); it was the only species native to Great Britain
Great Britain
and much of Europe
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Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid
Platanthera leucophaea, commonly known as the prairie white fringed orchid[4] or eastern prairie fringed orchid, is a rare species of orchid native to North America. It is listed as a threatened species in the United States on September 28, 1989. The IUCN does not currently recognize it as being at risk.Contents1 Distribution 2 Description 3 References 4 External linksDistribution[edit] Platanthera leucophaea is found in moist to wet tallgrass prairie, sedge meadows, fens, and old fields. For optimum growth, little or no woody encroachment should be near the habitat. Historically, the eastern prairie fringed orchid primarily in the Great Lakes Region with isolated populations in Maine, Virginia, Iowa, and Missouri. A historic record exists for Choctaw County, Oklahoma. The plant has not been observed in Oklahoma in the past 150 years
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