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Tamil Literature
Tamil literature
Tamil literature
(Tamil: தமிழ் இலக்கியம்) refers to the literature in the Tamil language. Tamil literature
Tamil literature
has a rich and long literary tradition spanning more than two thousand years. The oldest extant works show signs of maturity indicating an even longer period of evolution. Contributors to the Tamil literature are mainly from Tamil people
Tamil people
from South India, including the land now comprising Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Sri Lankan Tamils from Sri Lanka, and from Tamil diaspora. The history of Tamil literature
Tamil literature
follows the history of Tamil Nadu, closely following the social, political and cultural trends of various periods. The early Sangam literature, starting from the period of 2nd century BCE, contain anthologies of various poets dealing with many aspects of life, including love, war, social values and religion
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Nayanmars
Shiva
Shiva
- ShaktiSadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga KaliGanesha Murugan OthersScriptures and textsAgamas and TantrasVedas SvetasvataraTirumurai Shivasutras VachanasPhilosophyThree ComponentsPati Pashu PasamThree bondagesAnava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas YogaPracticesVibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-JangamSchoolsAdi MargamPashupata Kalamukha Kapalika Mantra
Mantra
MargamSaiddhantikaSiddhantismNon - SaiddhantikaKashmir ShaivismPratyabhijna Vama Dakshina Kaula: Trika-Yamala-Kubjika-NetraOthers Veerashaiva - Lingayatism Nath Siddhar Srouta Nusantara Agama SiwaScholarsLakulisa Abhinavagupta Vasugupta Utpaladeva Nayanars Meykandar Nirartha Basava Sharana Srikantha Appayya NavnathRelatedNandi Tantrism Jyotirlinga Shiva
Shiva
Temples Hinduism portalv t eThe Nayanars
Nayanars
(alt
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Kalittokai
Kalithogai (Tamil: கலித்தொகை),a classical Tamil poetic work,is the sixth book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. Kalithogai contains one hundred and fifty poems and were written by various authors. Nachinarkiniyar, a Tamil scholar living during the sixth or the seventh century C.E. has annotated this work. Kalithogai is an anthology of 150 poems in kali metre of varied length dealing with all phases and types of love experience. The poems are categorised into the five thinais according to the mood and subject matter conforming to the Sangam landscape. The first part (2-36) deals with paalai setting, the second (37-65) with kurinchi, the third (66-100) with marutam, the fourth (101-117) with mullai and the fifth (118-150) with neital. These five section were each written by a separate author
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Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Paripāṭal
Paripaadal (Tamil: பரிபாடல்), a classical Tamil poetic work, is the fifth book in the Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. Paripaatal contains seventy poems on various deities of the Hindu pantheon. This is a rare example of religious poetry we find in Sangam literature and is possibly the oldest religious composition in Tamil. The poems have associated music (பண்) so that these can be classified as songs (இசைப்பா). There are eight songs on Thirumaal (Vishnu), 31 songs on Kumaran (Muruga), one song on the Sea God, 26 on the mother Vaigai and four songs on Madurai
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Hindu
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Kuṟuntokai
Kurunthogai (Tamil: குறுந்தொகை), a classical Tamil poetic work, is the second book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. Kuruntokai contains poems dealing with matters of love and separation (அகம்) content matter and were written by numerous authors. Nachinarkiniyar, a Tamil scholar living during the sixth or the seventh century C.E
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Pattuppattu
Pathupattu (Tamil: பத்துப்பாட்டு; Pattuppāṭṭu; ten Idylls) is an anthology of ten mid-length books and one of the oldest surviving works of Tamil poetry. This collection is considered part of Sangam Literature and is dated to c. 300 BCE – c. 200 CE. This collection had been lost for some centuries until U.V.Swaminatha Iyer travelled around Tamil Nadu in the late nineteenth century to collect ancient palm-leaf manuscripts. It is not known who made this collection or the exact date it was collected. Although the name Pathupattu has been in use for very long, it is unknown whether this was the intended name of this anthology when it was first collected.Contents1 Aatrupadai 2 Themes of nature 3 Contents of the anthology 4 English Translations 5 References 6 Further readingAatrupadai[edit] The Pathupattu collection contains lengthy and picturesque descriptions of the Tamil country and its seasons
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Bhakti Movement
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-DussehraRaksha Bandhan Ganesh Chat
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri Lanka
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Kerala
Kerala
Kerala
(/ˈkɛrələ/), called Keralam in Malayalam
Malayalam
(where Kerala
Kerala
is the adjectival form), is a state in South India
India
on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea
Lakshadweep Sea
to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala
Kerala
is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
is the largest city in the state
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Shaivism
Shiva
Shiva
- ShaktiSadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga KaliGanesha Murugan OthersScriptures and textsAgamas and TantrasVedas SvetasvataraTirumurai Shivasutras VachanasPhilosophyThree ComponentsPati Pashu PasamThree bondagesAnava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas YogaPracticesVibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-JangamSchoolsAdi MargamPashupata Kalamukha Kapalika <
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Akanaṉūṟu
Akananuru (Tamil: அகநானூறு), a classical Tamil poetic work, is the seventh book in the anthology of Sangam literature
Sangam literature
(600 BCE
BCE
- 300 CE), namely Ettuthokai.[1] It contains 400 Akam (subjective) poems dealing with matters of love and separation. Other names for Akananuru include Neduntogai or Nedunthokai ("the long anthology"), Ahappattu, Ahananuru, and Agananuru.[2]Contents1 Authors 2 Date 3 Poetic characteristics 4 English Translations 5 Notes 6 ReferencesAuthors[edit] As many as 145 poets are said to have contributed to Akananuru collection.[2] Perunthevanaar, who translated the Mahabharatham into Tamil, is one of the authors
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Literature
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature is writing considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature). The concept has changed meaning over time: nowadays it can broaden to have non-written verbal art forms, and thus it is difficult to agree on its origin, which can be paired with that of language or writing itself
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Pandya
The Pandyan dynasty
Pandyan dynasty
was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola
Chola
and the Chera.[3] The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam.[4] The Early Pandyans ruled parts of Southern India
Southern India
from at least 4th century BCE. Pandyan rule ended in the first half of the 16th century CE.[5] They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu
Pandya Nadu
from Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Fish being their flag, Pandyas
Pandyas
were experts in water management, agriculture(mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too. Pandyan was well known since ancient times, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire
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Pandiya
The Pandyan dynasty
Pandyan dynasty
was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola
Chola
and the Chera.[3] The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam.[4] The Early Pandyans ruled parts of Southern India
Southern India
from at least 4th century BCE. Pandyan rule ended in the first half of the 16th century CE.[5] They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu
Pandya Nadu
from Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Fish being their flag, Pandyas
Pandyas
were experts in water management, agriculture(mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too. Pandyan was well known since ancient times, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire
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