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Tamil Calendar
The Tamil calendar is a sidereal Hindu calendar
Hindu calendar
used in Tamil Nadu, India.[1][2] It is also used in Puducherry, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius
Mauritius
and Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu farmers greatly refer to this. It is used today for cultural, religious and agricultural events,[3] with the Gregorian calendar largely used for official purposes both within and outside India. The Tamil calendar is based on the classical Hindu
Hindu
lunisolar calendar also used in Assam, West Bengal, Kerala, Manipur, Nepal, Odisha, Rajasthan and Punjab. There are several festivals based on the Tamil Hindu
Hindu
calendar. The Tamil New Year
Tamil New Year
follows the nirayanam vernal equinox[4] and generally falls on 14 April of the Gregorian year
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Sidereal Time
Sidereal time
Sidereal time
/saɪˈdɪəriəl/ is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects. Using sidereal time, it is possible to easily point a telescope to the proper coordinates in the night sky. Briefly, sidereal time is a "time scale that is based on Earth's rate of rotation measured relative to the fixed stars"[1] From a given observation point, a star found at one location in the sky will be found at the same location on another night at the same sidereal time. This is similar to how the time kept by a sundial can be used to find the location of the Sun. Just as the Sun
Sun
and Moon appear to rise in the east and set in the west due to the rotation of Earth, so do the stars
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Mercury (planet)
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbital period around the Sun
Sun
of 87.97 days is the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the Roman deity Mercury, the messenger of the gods. Like Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun
Sun
within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet, and never exceeds 28° away from the Sun. When viewed from Earth, this proximity to the Sun
Sun
means the planet can only be seen near the western or eastern horizon during the early evening or early morning. At this time it may appear as a bright star-like object, but is often far more difficult to observe than Venus
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Surya Siddhanta
The Surya
Surya
Siddhanta is the name of a Sanskrit treatise in Indian astronomy from late 4th-century or early 5th-century CE.[1][3] The text survives in several versions, was cited and extensively quoted in a 6th-century text, was likely revised for several centuries under the same title.[4][3] It has fourteen chapters.[5] A 12th-century manuscript of the text was translated by Burgess in 1860.[2] The
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Kaliyuga
Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
(Devanāgarī: कलियुग [kəli juɡə], lit. "age of Kali", or "age of vice") is the last of the four stages (or ages or yugas) the world goes through as part of a 'cycle of yugas' (i.e. Mahayuga) described in the Sanskrit scriptures.[1] The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, and Dvapara Yuga. Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
is associated with the demon Kali
Kali
(not to be confused with the goddess Kālī)
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Shalivahana Era
The Shaka era
Shaka era
(IAST: Śaka era) is a historical calendar era, corresponding to Julian year 78. It is commonly known in Indian languages as Shalivahana Śaka (era of Shalivahana) or RTGS: Mahasakkarat "Greater Era").Contents1 History 2 Usage 3 See also 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 SourcesHistory[edit] The origin of the Shaka era
Shaka era
is highly controversial.[1] There are two Shaka era
Shaka era
system in scholarly use, one is called Old Shaka Era, whose epoch is uncertain, probably sometime in the 1st millennium BCE because ancient Buddhist, Jaina and Hindu inscriptions and texts use it, but this is a subject of dispute among scholars. The other is called Saka
Saka
Era of 78 AD, or simply Saka
Saka
Era, a system that is common in epigraphic evidence from southern India
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Nakkirar I
Nakkirar I (c. 250 CE) was a poet of the Sangam period, who composed anthologies including the Neṭunalvāṭai.[1] He also wrote verse 7 of the Tiruvalluva Maalai.[2] See also[edit]Tamil civilization portal Dravidian civilizations portal India portal Literature portal Poetry portalSangam literature List of Sangam poetsNotes[edit]^ Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The Smile of Murugan: On Tamil Literature of South India. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-03591-5.  ^ Vedanayagam, Rama (2017). Tiruvalluva Maalai: Moolamum Eliya Urai Vilakkamum (in Tamil) (1 ed.)
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Manimekalai
Manimekalai
Manimekalai
(Tamil: மணிமேகலை),[1][2] by the poet Chithalai Chathanar, is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.[3] Manimekalai is a poem in 30 cantos. Its story is a sequel to another of the Five Great Epics, Silappatikaram, and tells the story of the daughter of Kovalan
Kovalan
and Madhavi, who became a Buddhist
Buddhist
Bikkuni.Contents1 The Author and Period of Composition 2 The Epic2.1 Setting 2.2 Notable characters 2.3 Disappearance of Kāveripaṭṭinam or Puhār3 Buddhist
Buddhist
School Affiliation 4 Survival of Text 5 Translations 6 Publishing in modern times 7 Criticism and Comparison 8 See also 9 References 10 BibliographyThe Author and Period of Composition[edit] There is some controversy about the exact date of this work
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Sun
The Sun
Sun
is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma,[14][15] with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.[16] It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, i.e. 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[17] About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.[18] The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star
G-type main-sequence star
(G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf
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Moon
The Moon
The Moon
is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's satellite Io, the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
among those whose densities are known. The Moon
The Moon
is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
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Mars
Mars
Mars
is the fourth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System
Solar System
after Mercury. In English, Mars
Mars
carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet"[14][15] because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye.[16] Mars
Mars
is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon
Moon
and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars
Mars
are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons
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Jupiter
by volume:6999890000000000000♠89%±2.0% hydrogen (H 2)6999100000000000000♠10%±2.0% helium (He)6997300000000000000♠0.3%±0.1% methane (CH 4)6996259999999999999♠0.026%±0.004% ammonia (NH 3)6995280000000000000♠0.0028%±0.001% hydrogen deuteride (HD)6994599999999999999♠0.0006%±0.0002% ethane (C 2H 6)6994400000000000000♠0.0004%±0.0004% water (H 2O)Ices:ammonia (NH 3) water (H 2O) ammonium hydrosulfide (NH 4SH) Jupiter
Jupiter
is the fifth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
combined. Jupiter
Jupiter
and Saturn
Saturn
are gas giants; the other two giant planets, Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune
Neptune
are ice giants
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Laos
Coordinates: 18°N 105°E / 18°N 105°E / 18; 105 Socialist state
Socialist state
in southeast Asia Lao People's Democratic Republicສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ  (Lao)Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao (Lao romanisation)République démocratique populaire lao  (French) Flag Emblem Motto: "ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນະຖາ
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Venus
Venus
Venus
is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.[12] It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System
Solar System
and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets (meaning the Sun
Sun
would rise in the west and set in the east).[13] It does not have any natural satellites. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty
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Saturn
by volume:6999963000000000000♠96.3%±2.4% hydrogen (H 2)6998325000000000000♠3.25%±2.4% helium (He)6997450000000000000♠0.45%±0.2% methane (CH 4)6996125000000000000♠0.0125%±0.0075% ammonia (NH 3)6996109999999999999♠0.0110%±0.0058% hydrogen deuteride (HD)6994700000000000000♠0.0007%±0.00015% ethane (C 2H 6)Ices:ammonia (NH 3) water (H 2O) ammonium hydrosulfide (NH 4SH) Saturn
Saturn
is the sixth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter
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Samvatsara
Samvatsara (संवत्सर) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term for a "year" in Vedic literature such as the Rigveda and other ancient texts.[1] In the medieval era literature, a samvatsara refers to the "Jovian year", that is a year based on the relative position of the planet Jupiter, while the solar year is called varsha.[2][3] A jovian year is not equal to a solar year based on the relative position of earth and sun.[3] A Jovian year is defined in Indian calendars as the time Brihaspati
Brihaspati
(Jupiter) takes to transit from one constellation to the next relative to its mean motion.[3] There are 60 samvatsara mentioned in the historic Indian calendars, and these are called Brihaspati
Brihaspati
samvatsara chakra.[3] These are not numbered but each has been given a name
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