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Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, officially The Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, was an oppositional state in China
China
from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
by Hong Xiuquan
Hong Xiuquan
and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing
Tianjing
(present-day Nanjing). A self-proclaimed convert to Christianity, Hong Xiuquan
Hong Xiuquan
led an army that controlled a significant part of southern China
China
during the middle of the 19th century, eventually expanding to a size of nearly 30 million people
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List Of Historical Unrecognized States
These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization
Romanization
system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization
Postal Romanization
(still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn
Hànyǔ Pīnyīn
system approved in 1958
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Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation
The Hong Kong Government uses an unpublished system of Romanisation of Cantonese
Cantonese
for public purposes which is based on the 1888 standard described by Roy T Cowles in 1914 as Standard Romanisation.[1]:iv The primary need for Romanisation of Cantonese
Cantonese
by the Hong Kong Government is in the assigning of names to new streets and places
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Dynasties In Chinese History
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.Contents1 Background 2 Dynasties of China 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBackground[edit] As one might incorrectly infer from viewing historical timelines, it is not usually the case that one dynasty transitions abruptly and smoothly into another. Rather, dynasties were often established before the complete overthrow of an existing reign, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. For example, the conventional date 1645 marks the year in which the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
armies overthrew the preceding Ming dynasty, according to the dynastic cycle of China. However, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was established in 1636 (or even 1616, albeit under a different name), while the last Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
pretender was not deposed until 1663
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Southern China
South China
China
or Southern China
China
(simplified Chinese: 华南; traditional Chinese: 華南; pinyin: huá nán) is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context. In normal parlance and geography, it refers to the region south of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]The Qinling Huaihe Line
Qinling Huaihe Line
separates China
China
into its Northern and Southern regionsContents1 Definitions 2 Administrative divisions 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Further information: Northern and southern China In the broadest sense, Southern China
China
can denote the entire portion of the country south of the line demarcated by the Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
and Huai River
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Confucianism
Hermeneutic schools:Old TextsNew Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country Confucianism
Confucianism
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Christian God
God
God
in Christianity
Christianity
is the eternal being who created and preserves all things
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Jesus
Jesus[e] (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Jesus
Jesus
Christ,[f] was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.[12] He is the central figure of Christianity
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British Empire
The British Empire
Empire
comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England
England
between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power.[1] By 1913, the British Empire
Empire
held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time,[2] and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi),[3] 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area.[4] As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Western Powers
The Western world, or simply the West (from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root wes-; Ancient Greek: Ἓσπερος /ˈhɛspərʊs/, Hesperos,[1] "towards evening") refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated.[2] The Western world
Western world
is also known as the Occident (from Latin
Latin
word occidens, "sunset, West"). The East and the Orient
Orient
are terms used as contraries. Ancient Greece[a][b] and ancient Rome[c] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization, the former due to its impact on Western philosophy, democracy, science, art, and the ancient Roman culture, the latter due to its influence in governance, republicanism, law, architecture and warfare
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First Opium War
British victoryTreaty of NankingTerritorial changes Hong Kong Island
Hong Kong Island
ceded to BritainBelligerents United Kingdom British East India Company China
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