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Taif
Ta'if
Ta'if
(Arabic: الطائف‎; (aṭ-Ṭā'if)) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
at an elevation of 1,879 m (6,165 ft) on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains
Sarawat Mountains
(Al-Sarawat Mountains). It has a population of 1,200,000 people[1] and is the unofficial summer capital
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Flag Of Saudi Arabia
A green field with the Shahada
Shahada
or Muslim creed written in the Thuluth script in white above a horizontal saber, in which the tip was pointed to the hoist-side in the center.reverse This article contains Arabic
Arabic
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.The flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(Arabic: علم المملكة العربية السعودية‎) is the flag used by the government of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
since March 15, 1973. It is a green flag featuring in white an Arabic
Arabic
inscription and a sword
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Muhammad Ali Of Egypt
Wāli
Wāli
of Egypt, Sudan, Sham, Hejaz, Morea, Thasos, CreteAn 1840 portrait of Muhammad Ali Pasha
Pasha
by Auguste CouderReign 17 May 1805 – 2 March 1848Predecessor Ahmad Khurshid PashaSuccessor Ibrahim PashaBorn 4 March 1769 Kavala, Macedonia, Rumeli eyalet, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(present-day Greece)Died 2 August 1849(1849-08-02) (aged 80) Ras el-Tin Palace, Alexandria, Egypt
Egypt
Eyalet, Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(present day Egypt)Burial Mosque of Muhammad Ali, Cairo
Cairo
Citadel, EgyptWivesEmina of Nosratli Shams uz-Zafar Nuraj Shams-i-Nur Zepha Mah-Duran Khadija Ziba Mumtaz Shama NourIssue Tevhida Ibrahim Pasha Tusun Pasha Isma'il Hatice (a.k.a
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Banu Daws
The Banu Daws (Arabic: بنو دوس‎) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era. Located south of Mecca, the tribe numbered among its leaders Tufayl ibn Amr, one of Muhammad's companions.[1]Contents1 People 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksPeople[edit] Tufayl ibn Amr — Chief Abu HurairahSee also[edit]IslamReferences[edit]^ Haykal, Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn; Islamic Book Trust (1 May 1994). The Life of Muhammad. Trans. Isma'il Razi A. al-Faruqi. The Other Press. p. 454
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Battle Of Tabouk
The Expedition to Tabouk, also known as the Expedition of Usra, was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD 630, 8 AH. Muhammad led a force of as many as 30,000[1] north to Tabouk in present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia, and managed to capture Tabouk.Contents1 Preparations 2 Expedition 3 See also 4 ReferencesPreparations[edit] Following rumours of a Byzantine invasion,[1] the Muslims as well as allies of Muhammad, received an urgent call to join the campaign. But the Arabs of the desert showed little interest. Many came up with excuses not to participate
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Sharif Of Mecca
The Sharif of Mecca
Mecca
(Arabic: شريف مكة‎, Sharīf Makkah) or Hejaz
Hejaz
(Arabic: شريف الحجاز‎, Sharīf al-Ḥijāz) was the title of the leader of the Sharifate of Mecca, traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
and the surrounding Hejaz. The term sharif means "noble" in Arabic and is used to describe the descendants of Prophet Muhammad's grandson al-Hassan ibn Ali. The Sharif was charged with protecting the cities and their environs and ensuring the safety of pilgrims performing the Hajj. The title is sometimes spelled Sheriff or Sherif, with the latter variant used, for example, by T. E. Lawrence
T. E. Lawrence
in Seven Pillars of Wisdom. The office of the Sharifate of Mecca
Sharifate of Mecca
dates back to the late Abbasid era
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Sultan
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Selim I
Selim I
Selim I
(Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute[2] (Turkish: Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1512 to 1520.[1] His reign is notable for the enormous expansion of the Empire, particularly his conquest between 1516 and 1517 of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which included all of the Levant, Hejaz, Tihamah, and Egypt
Egypt
itself
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House Of Saud
The House of Saud
House of Saud
(Arabic: آل سعود‎, translit. Āl Saʻūd IPA: [ʔæːl saʕuːd]) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Saud, founder of the Emirate of Diriyah, known as the First Saudi state (1744–1818), and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Ibn Saud, the modern founder of Saudi Arabia.[1] The most influential member of the Royal family is the King of Saudi Arabia, currently King Salman, who chose first his nephew and then his son as crown prince without consulting the Allegiance Council
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Mahmud II
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
(Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (Turkish: İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan
Sultan
of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated into the Decree of Tanzimat
Tanzimat
("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I
Abdulmejid I
and Abdülaziz. Often described as " Peter the Great
Peter the Great
of Turkey",[1] Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary
Janissary
corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
(/ˈswɪtsərlənd/), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities.[1][2][note 1] The country is situated in Western-Central Europe,[note 4] and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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Hunayn (Saudi Arabia)
Hunayn may refer to:Hunayn, Saudi Arabia, a location Battle of Hunayn, at Hunayn, Saudi Arabia Hunayn (name)This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Hunayn. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Oriental Studies
Oriental studies
Oriental studies
is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies
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Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
Johann Ludwig (also known as John Lewis, Jean Louis) Burckhardt
Burckhardt
(24 November 1784 – 15 October 1817) was a Swiss traveller, geographer and orientalist. He wrote his letters in French and signed Louis
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