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Tai–Kadai Languages
The Tai–Kadai languages, also known as Kra–Dai, Daic, and Kadai, are a language family of highly tonal languages found in southern China, northeast India
India
and Southeast Asia. They include Thai and Lao, the national languages of Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
respectively.[2] Around 93 million people speak Tai-Kadai languages, 60% of whom speak Thai.[3] Ethnologue
Ethnologue
lists 95 languages in this family, with 62 of these being in the Tai branch.[4] The diversity of the Tai–Kadai languages
Tai–Kadai languages
in southern China, especially in Guizhou
Guizhou
and Hainan, suggests that this is close to their homeland
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Southern China
South China
China
or Southern China
China
(simplified Chinese: 华南; traditional Chinese: 華南; pinyin: huá nán) is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China. Its precise meaning varies with context. In normal parlance and geography, it refers to the region south of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]The Qinling Huaihe Line
Qinling Huaihe Line
separates China
China
into its Northern and Southern regionsContents1 Definitions 2 Administrative divisions 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Further information: Northern and southern China In the broadest sense, Southern China
China
can denote the entire portion of the country south of the line demarcated by the Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
and Huai River
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Formosan Languages
The Formosan languages
Formosan languages
are the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan. Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
(those recognized by the government) currently comprise about 2.3% of the island's population. However, far fewer can still speak their ancestral language, after centuries of language shift. Of the approximately 26 languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are extinct, another four (perhaps five) are moribund,[2][3] and several others are to some degree endangered. The aboriginal languages of Taiwan
Taiwan
have significance in historical linguistics, since in all likelihood Taiwan
Taiwan
was the place of origin of the entire Austronesian
Austronesian
language family
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Negative Evidence
Evidence of absence is evidence of any kind that suggests something is missing or that it does not exist. Per the traditional aphorism, "Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence," positive evidence of this kind is distinct from a lack of evidence or ignorance[1] of that which should have been found already, had it existed.[2] In this regard Irving Copi writes:In some circumstances it can be safely assumed that if a certain event had occurred, evidence of it could be discovered by qualified investigators. In such circumstances it is perfectly reasonable to take the absence of proof of its occurrence as positive proof of its non-occurrence. — Copi, Introduction to Logic (1953), p
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Guangdong
Guangdong
Guangdong
(Chinese: 广东) is a province in South China, located on the South China
South China
Sea coast. Traditionally romanised as Kwangtung, Guangdong
Guangdong
surpassed Henan
Henan
and Sichuan
Sichuan
to become the most populous province in China
China
in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year;[5][6] the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population.[7] This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside the former British Raj, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab[8] and the Indian states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Uttar Pradesh[9]
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Malayo-Polynesian
The Malayo- Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers. The Malayo- Polynesian languages
Polynesian languages
are spoken by the Austronesian people
Austronesian people
of the island nations of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean, with a smaller number in continental Asia. Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam serve as the northwest geographic outlier, going well into the Malay peninsula. On the northernmost geographical outlier does not pass beyond the north of Pattani, which is located in southern Thailand. Malagasy is spoken in the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
located off the eastern coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean
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Paul K. Benedict
Paul King Benedict (Chinese: 白保羅; pinyin: Bái Bǎoluó; July 5, 1912 – July 21, 1997) was an American anthropologist, mental health professional, and linguist who specialized in languages of East and Southeast Asia. He is well known for his 1942 proposal of the Austro-Tai language family and also his reconstruction of Proto-Sino-Tibetan and Proto-Tibeto-Burman. He was also a practicing psychiatrist in the New York area for 20 years and was also a pioneer in the field of ethnopsychiatry. Life and career[edit] Benedict was born in Poughkeepsie, New York
Poughkeepsie, New York
and graduated from Poughkeepsie High School in 1930. He attended Cornell University before transferring to University of New Mexico, earning a bachelor of arts degree there in 1934.[1] He then attended Harvard University earning a master's degree in 1935 and a Ph.D
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Guizhou
Guizhou
Guizhou
is a province of the People's Republic of China
China
located in the southwestern part of the country. Its capital city is Guiyang. Guizhou is a relatively poor and economically undeveloped province, but rich in natural, cultural and environmental resources. Demographically it is one of China's most diverse provinces
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Laos
Coordinates: 18°N 105°E / 18°N 105°E / 18; 105Lao People's Democratic Republicສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ (Lao) Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao République démocratique populaire lao (French)FlagEmblemMotto: ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນາຖາວອນ (English: "Peace, independence, democracy, unity and prosperity")Anthem: "Pheng Xat Lao" (English: "Lao National Anthem")Location of  Laos  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vientiane 17°58′N 102°36′E / 17.967°N 102.600°E / 17.967; 102.600Official languages LaoRecognised languages French[1]Spoken languagesLao Hmong Khmu FrenchEthnic groups (2005[2])53.2%
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Ethnologue
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, and is now published annually by SIL International, a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards.Contents1 Collective codes 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 3 History 4 Deficiencies 5 References 6 External linksCollective codes[edit] ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups. As of August 29, 2008 update to ISO 639-5, the standard defined 114 collective codes
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Indochina
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia. The name refers to the lands historically within the cultural influence of India
India
and China, and physically bound by the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
in the west and China
China
in the north. It corresponds to the present-day areas of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and (variably) peninsular Malaysia and Singapore
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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