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Taenia Saginata
Taenia saginata
Taenia saginata
(synonym Taeniarhynchus saginatus), commonly known as the beef tapeworm, is a zoonotic tapeworm belonging to the order Cyclophyllidea
Cyclophyllidea
and genus Taenia. It is an intestinal parasite in humans causing taeniasis (a type of helminthiasis) and cysticercosis in cattle. Cattle
Cattle
are the intermediate hosts, where larval development occurs, while humans are definitive hosts harbouring the adult worms. It is found globally and most prevalently where cattle are raised and beef is consumed. It is relatively common in Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Latin America.[1] Humans are generally infected as a result of eating raw or undercooked beef which contains the infective larvae, called cysticerci. As hermaphrodites, each body segment called proglottid has complete sets of both male and female reproductive systems
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Hexacanth
Eucestoda is the larger of the two subclasses of flatworms in the class Cestoda
Cestoda
(the other subclass is Cestodaria). The Eucestoda are commonly referred to as tapeworms. Larvae are hexacanth, having six posterior hooks on the scolex (head), in contrast to the decacanth (ten-hooked) Cestodaria. All species of the Eucestoda are endoparasites of vertebrates, living in the digestive tract or related ducts
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Tegument (helminth)
Tegument /ˈtɛɡjəmənt/ is a term in helminthology for the outer body covering among members of the phylum Platyhelminthes. The name is derived from a Latin
Latin
word tegumentum or tegere, meaning "to cover".[1][2] It is characteristic of flatworms including the broad groups of tapeworms and flukes. Once considered to be a non-living component, it is now known to be a dynamic cellular structure. In fact it is a living structure consisting of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and RNA. It forms the protective layer and the host-parasite interface of the worms, serving both secretory and absorptive functions.[3]Contents1 Structure and composition 2 Functions 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksStructure and composition[edit] The fine structure of tegument is essentially the same in both the cestodes and trematodes. A typical tegument is 7-16 μm thick, with distinct layers
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Liver
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.[4] The liver is an accessory digestive gland that produces bile, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile
Bile
aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids
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Lungs
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung
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Testes
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans. It is homologous to the female ovary. The functions of the testes are to produce both sperm and androgens, primarily testosterone
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Uterus
The uterus (from Latin
Latin
"uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals. In the human, the lower end of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the upper end, the fundus, is connected to the fallopian tubes. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops during gestation. In the human embryo, the uterus develops from the paramesonephric ducts which fuse into the single organ known as a simplex uterus
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Asymptomatic
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms. A condition might be asymptomatic if it fails to show the noticeable symptoms with which it is usually associated. Asymptomatic
Asymptomatic
infections are also called subclinical infections. Other diseases (such as mental illnesses) might be considered subclinical if they present some but not all of the symptoms required for a clinical diagnosis
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Digestive System
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).[1] In this system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth. Digestion
Digestion
involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. Chewing, in which food is mixed with saliva begins the process of digestion. This produces a bolus which can be swallowed down the esophagus and into the stomach. Here it is mixed with gastric juice until it passes into the duodenum where it is mixed with a number of enzymes produced by the pancreas
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Reproductive System
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system.[1] Unlike most organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences
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Anus
The anus (from Latin
Latin
anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to control the expulsion of feces, unwanted semi-solid matter produced during digestion, which, depending on the type of animal, may include: matter which the animal cannot digest, such as bones;[1] food material after all the nutrients have been extracted, for example cellulose or lignin; ingested matter which would be toxic if it remained in the digestive tract; and dead or excess gut bacteria and other endosymbionts. Amphibians, reptiles, and birds use the same orifice (known as the cloaca) for excreting liquid and solid wastes, for copulation and egg-laying
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Microtriches
Microtriches (singular microtrix) are the highly specialized microvilli covering the entire surface of the tegument of cestodes. They are fine hair-like filaments distributed throughout the surface of the body, both unique to and ubiquitous among cestodes, giving the body surface a smooth and silky appearance. They are different from typical microvilli in that they contain conspicuous electron dense materials at the tip. Due to their morphological variation they make up unique defining structures in cestodes. Since cestodes are devoid of any digestive and excretory systems, the tegument with its microtriches is the principal site of absorption and secretion
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Acoelomate
The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals[1] and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs. In developed animals, it is lined with a mesodermal epithelium. In other animals, such as molluscs, it remains undifferentiated.[clarification needed] The term coelom derives from the ancient greek word κοίλια (koília), meaning "cavity".[2][3]Contents1 Structure1.1 Development 1.2 Origins2 Functions 3 Coelomic fluid 4 Classification in zoology4.1 Coelomates4.1.1 Coelomate
Coelomate
phyla4.2 Pseudocoelomates4.2.1 Pseudocoelomate phyla4.3 Acoelomates5 Etymology 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingStructure[edit] Development[edit] Coelom
Coelom
formation begins in the gastrula stage
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Ovary
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilised by a sperm. There is an ovary (from Latin
Latin
ovarium, meaning egg/nut) found on the left and the right side of the body. The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause
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