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TP-13
TP-13
TP-13
is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research. It has similar effects to benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. It is a subtype-selective partial agonist at GABAA receptors, binding selectively to GABAA receptor complexes bearing α2 and α3 subunits.[1] It has modest anticonvulsant activity although less than that of diazepam,[2] and its main effect is likely to be selective anxiolytic action, as seen with other related α2/3-preferring agonists such as L-838,417. References[edit]^ McCabe C, Shaw D, Atack JR, Street LJ, Wafford KA, Dawson GR, Reynolds DS, Leslie JC. Subtype-selective GABAergic drugs facilitate extinction of mouse operant behaviour. Neuropharmacology. 2004 Feb;46(2):171-8
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
(Red Book) IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
(Blue Book)This chemistry-related article is a stub
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Carbamate
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH). A carbamate group, carbamate ester (e.g., ethyl carbamate), and carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally and often are interconverted chemically. Carbamate
Carbamate
esters are also called urethanes.Contents1 Synthesis 2 Applications and occurrence2.1 In biochemistry2.1.1 CO2 capture by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase3 Commercial carbamate compounds3.1 Carbamate
Carbamate
insecticides 3.2 Polyurethanes 3.3 Preservatives and cosmetics 3.4 Medicine 3.5 Toxicity4 Sulfur
Sulfur
analogues 5 See also 6 ReferencesSynthesis[edit] Carbamic acids are unstable, but the salts of these elusive acids are well known
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ChemSpider
ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is a database of chemicals. ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]Contents1 Database 2 Crowdsourcing 3 Searching 4 Chemistry document mark-up 5 History 6 Services6.1 SyntheticPages 6.2 Open PHACTS7 See also 8 ReferencesDatabase[edit] The database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including:EPA DSSTox[14][15] U.S
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Positive Allosteric Modulators
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a receptor agonist or inverse agonist at its receptor protein target. Allosteric modulators bind to a site distinct from that of the orthosteric binding site where a receptor agonist would normally bind. Usually they induce a conformational change within the protein structure. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), also known as allosteric enhancers, induce an amplification of the orthosteric agonist's effect, either by enhancing the binding affinity or the functional efficacy of the orthosteric agonist for the target protein.[1] Most benzodiazepines act as PAMs. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) reduce the effects of the orthosteric ligand, but is inactive in the absence of the orthosteric ligand
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Tandospirone
Tandospirone
Tandospirone
(brand name Sediel) is an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug used in China
China
and Japan, where it is marketed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma
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Gepirone
Gepirone
Gepirone
is an antidepressant and anxiolytic drug of the azapirone group that was synthesized by Bristol-Myers Squibb
Bristol-Myers Squibb
in 1986 and has been under development for the treatment of depression but has yet to be marketed.[1][2][3] It has been under development in the U.S
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Buspirone
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).[9] It is also commonly used to augment antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder.[10] Unlike most anxiolytics, the pharmacology of buspirone is not related to that of benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or carbamates (it is not a GABA receptor agonist), and so buspirone does not carry the risk of physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms for which those drug classes are known
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Agonist
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist, and an inverse agonist causes an action opposite to that of the agonist.Contents1 Types of agonists 2 Activity2.1 Potency 2.2 Therapeutic index3 Etymology 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes of agonists[edit] Receptors can be activated by either endogenous agonists (such as hormones and neurotransmitters) or exogenous agonists (such as drugs), resulting in a biological response. A physiological agonist is a substance that creates the same bodily responses but does not bind to the same receptor.An endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body that binds to and activates that receptor
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Anticonvulsant
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder[1] and borderline personality disorder,[2] since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain.[3] Anticonvulsants suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures.[4] Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain.[5] Conventional antiepileptic drugs may block sodium channels or enhance γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function
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5-HT1A Receptor
NM_000524NM_008308RefSeq (protein)NP_000515NP_032334Location (UCSC) Chr 5: 63.96 – 63.96 Mb Chr 13: 105.44 – 105.45 Mb PubMed
PubMed
search [3] [4]WikidataView/Edit Human View/Edit MouseThe serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor ( 5-HT
5-HT
receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). It is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), coupled to the Gi protein, that mediates inhibitory neurotransmission
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Partial Agonist
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist. They may also be considered ligands which display both agonistic and antagonistic effects — when both a full agonist and partial agonist are present, the partial agonist actually acts as a competitive antagonist, competing with the full agonist for receptor occupancy and producing a net decrease in the receptor activation observed with the full agonist alone.[1] Clinically, partial agonists can be used to activate receptors to give a desired submaximal response when inadequate amounts of the endogenous ligand are present, or they can reduce the overstimulation of receptors when excess amounts of the endogenous ligand are present.[2] Some currently common drugs that have been classed as partial agonists at particular receptors include buspirone, aripiprazole, buprenorphine, nalmefene and norclozapine
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
International Chemical Identifier
Identifier
(InChI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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JSmol
Jmol
Jmol
is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions.[2] Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool,[3] or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry. It is written in the programming language Java, so it can run on the operating systems Windows, macOS, Linux, and Unix, if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License
GNU Lesser General Public License
(LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna. A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways
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