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TP-13
TP-13
TP-13
is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research. It has similar effects to benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic. It is a subtype-selective partial agonist at GABAA receptors , binding selectively to GABAA receptor complexes bearing α2 and α3 subunits. It has modest anticonvulsant activity although less than that of diazepam , and its main effect is likely to be selective anxiolytic action, as seen with other related α2/3-preferring agonists such as L-838,417 . REFERENCES * ^ McCabe C, Shaw D, Atack JR, Street LJ, Wafford KA, Dawson GR, Reynolds DS, Leslie JC. Subtype-selective GABAergic drugs facilitate extinction of mouse operant behaviour. Neuropharmacology. 2004 Feb;46(2):171-8
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Agonist
An AGONIST is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist and an inverse agonist causes an action opposite to that of the agonist. CONTENTS * 1 Types of agonists * 2 Activity * 2.1 Potency * 2.2 Therapeutic index * 3 Etymology * 4 See also * 5 References TYPES OF AGONISTSReceptors can be activated by either endogenous (such as hormones and neurotransmitters ) or exogenous (such as drugs ) agonists, resulting in a biological response. A physiological agonist is a substance that creates the same bodily responses but does not bind to the same receptor. An endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body that binds to and activates that receptor
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Carbamate
A CARBAMATE is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH). A carbamate group, carbamate ester (e.g., ethyl carbamate ), and carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally and often are interconverted chemically. Carbamate
Carbamate
esters are also called urethanes. CONTENTS * 1 Synthesis * 2 Applications and occurrence * 2.1 Carbamates
Carbamates
in biochemistry * 2.1.1 CO2 capture by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase * 3 Commercial carbamate compounds * 3.1 Carbamate
Carbamate
insecticides * 3.2 Polyurethanes * 3.3 Preservatives and cosmetics * 3.4 Medicine * 3.5 Toxicity * 4 Sulfur
Sulfur
analogues * 5 See also * 6 References SYNTHESISCarbamic acids are unstable, but the salts of these elusive acids are well known
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Anticonvulsant
ANTICONVULSANTS (also commonly known as ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS or as ANTISEIZURE DRUGS) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures . Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder , since many seem to act as mood stabilizers , and for the treatment of neuropathic pain . Anticonvulsants suppress the rapid and excessive firing of neurons during seizures. Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain. Some investigators have observed that anticonvulsants themselves may cause reduced IQ in children
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE . There are two main areas: * IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry (Red Book) * IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry (Blue Book) This chemistry -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Positive Allosteric Modulators
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of an agonist or inverse agonist at a target protein , for example a receptor . Allosteric modulators bind to a site distinct from that of the orthosteric agonist binding site . Usually they induce a conformational change within the protein structure . A positive allosteric modulator (PAM) or allosteric enhancer induces an amplification of the orthosteric agonist's effect, either by enhancing the binding affinity or the functional efficacy of the orthosteric agonist for the target protein. A negative modulator (NAM) reduces the effects of the orthosteric ligand , but is inactive in the absence of the orthosteric ligand. Substances that occupy the allosteric binding site and are functionally neutral are called silent allosteric modulators (SAMs). Classic benzodiazepines are well-known PAMs
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Partial Agonist
In pharmacology , PARTIAL AGONISTS are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor , but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist . They may also be considered ligands which display both agonistic and antagonistic effects — when both a full agonist and partial agonist are present, the partial agonist actually acts as a competitive antagonist , competing with the full agonist for receptor occupancy and producing a net decrease in the receptor activation observed with the full agonist alone. Clinically, partial agonists can be used to activate receptors to give a desired submaximal response when inadequate amounts of the endogenous ligand are present, or they can reduce the overstimulation of receptors when excess amounts of the endogenous ligand are present. Some currently common drugs that have been classed as partial agonists at particular receptors include buspirone , aripiprazole , buprenorphine , nalmefene and norclozapine
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR-INPUT LINE-ENTRY SYSTEM (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII
ASCII
strings . SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN
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JSmol
JMOL is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions . Jmol
Jmol
returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry . It is written in the programming language Java , so it can run on the operating systems Windows , macOS , Linux
Linux
, and Unix , if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna . A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models , space-filling models , ribbon diagrams , etc
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Molar Mass
In chemistry , the MOLAR MASS M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound ) divided by the amount of substance . The base SI unit for molar mass is kg /mol . However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. As an example, the molar mass of water: M(H2O) ≈ 6998180148800000000♠18.01488 g/mol
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ChemSpider
CHEMSPIDER is a database of chemicals . ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Database * 2 Crowdsourcing * 3 Searching * 4 Chemistry document mark-up * 5 History * 6 Services * 6.1 SyntheticPages * 6.2 Open PHACTS * 7 See also * 8 References DATABASEThe database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including: * EPA DSSTox * U.S
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