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Syncopation
In music, syncopation involves a variety of rhythms which are in some way unexpected which make part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat. More simply, syncopation is a general term for "a disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rhythm": a "placement of rhythmic stresses or accents where they wouldn't normally occur."[1] The correlation of at least two sets of time intervals.[2] Also known as an "Uneven movement from bar to bar". Syncopation
Syncopation
is used in many musical styles, especially dance music--"All dance music makes use of syncopation and it's often a vital element that helps tie the whole track together".[3] In the form of a back beat, syncopation is used in virtually all contemporary popular music.Vertical hemiola
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Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach[a] (31 March [O.S. 21 March] 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Brandenburg Concertos
Brandenburg Concertos
and the Goldberg Variations, and vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.[3] The Bach family
Bach family
already counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. Having become an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother, after which he continued his musical formation in Lüneburg
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Brandenburg Concertos
The Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
(BWV 1046–1051, original title: Six Concerts à plusieurs instruments)[1] are a collection of six instrumental works presented by Bach to Christian Ludwig, Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg-Schwedt,[2] in 1721 (though probably composed earlier). They are widely regarded as some of the best orchestral compositions of the Baroque era.Contents1 History 2 Content2.1 No. 1 in F major, BWV 1046 2.2 No. 2 in F major, BWV 1047 2.3 No. 3 in G major, BWV 1048 2.4 No. 4 in G major, BWV 1049 2.5 No. 5 in D major, BWV 1050 2.6 No
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Giovanni Gabrieli
Giovanni Gabrieli
Giovanni Gabrieli
(c. 1554/1557 – 12 August 1612) was an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms.Contents1 Biography 2 Music and style 3 Works3.1 Concerti (1587) 3.2 Sacrae Symphoniae (1597) 3.3 Canzoni per sonare (1608) 3.4 Canzone e Sonate (1615) 3.5 Sacrae Symphoniae II (1615)4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Gabrieli was born in Venice. He was one of five children, and his father came from the region of Carnia
Carnia
and went to Venice
Venice
shortly before Giovanni's birth
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Igor Stravinsky
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: И́горь Фёдорович Страви́нский, IPA: [ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj]; 17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century. Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Serge Diaghilev
Serge Diaghilev
and first performed in Paris by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes: The Firebird
The Firebird
(1910), Petrushka (1911), and The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring
(1913)
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Dynamics (music)
In music, the dynamics of a piece is the variation in loudness between notes or phrases. Dynamics are indicated by specific musical notation, often in some detail. However, dynamics markings still require interpretation by the performer depending on the musical context: for instance a piano (quiet) marking in one part of a piece might have quite different objective loudness in another piece, or even a different section of the same piece. The execution of dynamics also extends beyond loudness to include changes in timbre and sometimes tempo rubato.Contents1 Purpose and interpretation 2 Dynamic markings2.1 Changes 2.2 Extreme dynamic markings3 History 4 Relation to audio dynamics 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesPurpose and interpretation[edit] Dynamics are one of the expressive elements of music
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George Frideric Handel
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (/ˈhændəl/;[a] born Georg Friedrich Händel[b] German: [ˈhɛndəl] ( listen); 23 February 1685 (O.S.) [(N.S.) 5 March] – 14 April 1759)[2][c] was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos. Handel received important training in Halle-upon-Saale and worked as a composer in Hamburg
Hamburg
and Italy before settling in London
London
in 1712; he became a naturalised British subject in 1727.[4] He was strongly influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque
Italian Baroque
and by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition. Within 15 years, Handel had started three commercial opera companies to supply the English nobility with Italian opera
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Handel
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (/ˈhændəl/;[a] born Georg Friedrich Händel[b] German: [ˈhɛndəl] ( listen); 23 February 1685 (O.S.) [(N.S.) 5 March] – 14 April 1759)[2][c] was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos. Handel received important training in Halle-upon-Saale and worked as a composer in Hamburg
Hamburg
and Italy before settling in London
London
in 1712; he became a naturalised British subject in 1727.[4] He was strongly influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque
Italian Baroque
and by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition. Within 15 years, Handel had started three commercial opera companies to supply the English nobility with Italian opera
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Water Music (Handel)
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Christopher Hogwood
Christopher Jarvis Haley Hogwood CBE (10 September 1941 – 24 September 2014) was an English conductor, harpsichordist, writer, and musicologist. Founder of the early music ensemble the Academy of Ancient Music, he was an authority on historically informed performance and a leading figure in the early music revival of the late 20th century.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career2.1 Editing 2.2 Brahms "discovery"3 Death 4 Honours 5 Awards 6 Bibliography 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Born in Nottingham, Hogwood studied music and classical literature at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He went on to study performance and conducting under Raymond Leppard, Mary Potts and Thurston Dart; and later with Rafael Puyana and Gustav Leonhardt
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Ritornello
A ritornello [ritorˈnɛllo] (Italian; "little return") is a recurring passage in Baroque music
Baroque music
for orchestra or chorus.Contents1 Early history 2 Baroque music 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingEarly history[edit] The earliest use of the term "ritornello" in music referred to the final lines of a fourteenth-century madrigal, which were usually in a rhyme scheme and meter that contrasted with the rest of the song.[1] Scholars suggest that the word "ritornello" comes either from the Italian word ritorno (meaning return), or from tornado (meaning turnaround or flourish).[2]
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Hocket
In music, hocket is the rhythmic linear technique using the alternation of notes, pitches, or chords. In medieval practice of hocket, a single melody is shared between two (or occasionally more) voices such that alternately one voice sounds while the other rests.Contents1 History 2 Etymology 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] In European music, hocket was used primarily in vocal music of the 13th and early 14th centuries. It was a predominant characteristic of music of the Notre Dame school, during the ars antiqua, in which it was found in sacred vocal music. In the 14th century, the device was most often found in secular vocal music.In seculumExample of hocket (In seculum d'Amiens longum), French, late 13th century. Observe the quick alternation of sung notes and rests between the upper two voices
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Epilogue
An epilogue or epilog (from Greek ἐπίλογος epílogos, "conclusion" from ἐπί epi, "in addition" and λόγος logos, "word") is a piece of writing at the end of a work of literature, usually used to bring closure to the work.[1] It is presented from the perspective of within the story. When the author steps in and speaks indirectly to the reader, that is more properly considered an afterword
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Antiphony
An antiphon (Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" and φωνή "voice") is a short chant in Christian
Christian
ritual, sung as a refrain. Antiphons are Psalm-texted. Their form was favored by St Ambrose
Ambrose
and so they feature prominently in Ambrosian chant, but they occur widely in Gregorian chant
Gregorian chant
as well. They may be used during Mass, for the Introit, the Offertory
Offertory
or the Communion. They may also be used in the Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Hours, typically for Lauds or Vespers. They should not be confused with Marian antiphons or processional antiphons. A refrain is needed when a chant consists of alternating verses (usually sung by a cantor) and responds (usually sung by the congregation). The looser term antiphony is generally used for any call and response style of singing, such as the kirtan or the sea shanty
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Coda (music)
In music, a coda [ˈkoːda] (Italian for "tail", plural code) is a passage that brings a piece (or a movement) to an end. Technically, it is an expanded cadence. It may be as simple as a few bars, or as complex as an entire section.[1]Coda (It.) (1) The tail of a note. (2) The bars occasionally added to a contrapuntal movement after the close or finish of the canto fermo. (3) The few chords or bars attached to an infinite canon in order to render it finite; or a few chords not in a canon, added to a finite canon for the sake of obtaining a more harmonious conclusion. (4) That closing adjunct of any movement, or piece, specially intended to enforce a feeling of completeness and finality.[2]Contents1 In Classical Music1.1 Musical Purpose 1.2 Codetta2 History 3 In Popular Music (Pop) 4 In Music Notation 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesIn Classical Music[edit]Coda from Mozart's Piano Sonata no. 7 in C Major, K
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Fugue
In music, a fugue (/fjuːɡ/ fewg) is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition. It is not to be confused with a fuguing tune, which is a style of song popularized by and mostly limited to early American (i.e. shape note or "Sacred Harp") music and West Gallery music. A fugue usually has three main sections: an exposition, a development and a final entry that contains the return of the subject in the fugue's tonic key
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