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Symbolism (art)
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers
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Carlos Schwabe
Carlos Schwabe (July 21, 1866 – 22 January 1926) was a Swiss Symbolist painter and printmaker.Contents1 Life 2 Work 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] Schwabe was born in Altona, Holstein, and moved to Geneva, Switzerland at an early age, where he received the Swiss nationality. After studying art in Geneva, he relocated to Paris as a young man, where he worked as a wallpaper designer, and he became acquainted with Symbolist artists, musicians (Guillaume Lekeu, Vincent d'Indy) an writers. In 1892, he was one of the painters of the famous Salon de la Rose + Croix organized by Joséphin Péladan at the Galerie Durand-Ruel. His poster for the first Salon is an important symbolic work of the idealist new art. He exhibited at the Société nationale des Beaux-Arts, at the Salon d'automne and was present at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 (Gold Medal), but also in Munich, Zürich, Vienna, and Brussels
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Salon De La Rose + Croix
Salon may refer to:Beauty salon, a venue for cosmetic treatments Champagne Salon, a producer of sparkling wine Drawing room, an architectural space in a home Salon (gathering), a meeting for learning or enjoyment Salon (Paris), a regular art exhibitionArt exhibitions[edit]French art salons and academies Salon (Paris), a prestigious annual juried art exhibition in Paris begun under Louis XIV
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Free Verse
Free verse is an open form of poetry. It does not use consistent meter patterns, rhyme, or any other musical pattern.[1]Contents1 Preface 2 Antecedents 3 Form and structure 4 References 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 External linksPreface[edit] Poets have explained that free verse is not totally free; 'its only freedom is from the tyrant demands of the metered line'.[2] Free verse displays some elements of form. Most free verse self-evidently continues to observe a convention of the poetic line in some sense, at least in written representations, though retaining a potential degree of linkage. Donald Hall
Donald Hall
goes as far as to say that "the form of free verse is as binding and as liberating as the form of a rondeau",[3] and T. S. Eliot
T. S

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Word Play
Word play
Word play
or wordplay[1] (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement. Examples of word play include puns, phonetic mix-ups such as spoonerisms, obscure words and meanings, clever rhetorical excursions, oddly formed sentences, double entendres, and telling character names (such as in the play The Importance of Being Earnest, Ernest being a given name that sounds exactly like the adjective earnest). Word play
Word play
is quite common in oral cultures as a method of reinforcing meaning. Examples of text-based (orthographic) word play are found in languages with or without alphabet-based scripts; for example, see homophonic puns in Mandarin Chinese.Contents1 Techniques 2 Examples 3 Related phenomena 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTechniques[edit]This section needs expansion
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Théophile Gautier
Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier
Théophile Gautier
(French: [pjɛʁ ʒyl teofil ɡotje]; 30 August 1811 – 23 October 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and art and literary critic. While an ardent defender of Romanticism, Gautier's work is difficult to classify and remains a point of reference for many subsequent literary traditions such as Parnassianism, Symbolism, Decadence and Modernism
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Art For Art's Sake
"Art for art's sake" is the usual English rendering of a French slogan from the early 19th century, "l'art pour l'art", and expresses a philosophy that the intrinsic value of art, and the only "true" art, is divorced from any didactic, moral, or utilitarian function. Such works are sometimes described as "autotelic", from the Greek autoteles, "complete in itself", a concept that has been expanded to embrace "inner-directed" or "self-motivated" human beings. The term is sometimes used commercially
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Le Parnasse Contemporain
Le Parnasse contemporain ("The Contemporary Parnassus", e.g., the contemporary poetry scene) is composed of three volumes of poetry collections, published in 1866, 1871 and 1876 by the editor Alphonse Lemerre, which included a hundred French poets, such as Leconte de Lisle, Théodore de Banville, Heredia, Gautier, Catulle Mendès, Baudelaire, Sully Prudhomme, Mallarmé, François Coppée, Charles Cros, Léon Dierx, Louis Ménard, Verlaine, Villiers de L'Isle-Adam and Anatole France. The mid/late 19th century French literary movement Parnassianism took its name from the poetry collection. The first volume contained les Épaves and Nouvelles Fleurs du mal by Baudelaire, and early Mallarmé and Verlaine, avante-garde poets of the time. No poem by Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud
was included in any of the three volumes
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Arthur Rimbaud
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud
(/ræmˈboʊ/[2] or /ˈræmboʊ/; French: [aʁtyʁ ʁɛ̃bo] ( listen); 20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet who is known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism. Born in Charleville-Mézières, he started writing at a very young age and was a prodigious student, but abandoned his formal education in his teenage years to run away from home amidst the Franco-Prussian War.[3] During his late adolescence and early adulthood he began the bulk of his literary output, but completely stopped writing at the age of 21, after assembling one of his major works, Illuminations. Rimbaud was known to have been a libertine and a restless soul, having engaged in an at times violent romantic relationship with fellow poet Paul Verlaine, which lasted nearly two years
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François Coppée
François Edouard Joachim Coppée (26 January 1842 – 23 May 1908) was a French poet and novelist.Contents1 Biography 2 Criticism 3 Works3.1 Poetry 3.2 Plays 3.3 Prose works 3.4 Works in English translation4 Notes 5 Sources 6 Further reading 7 See also 8 External linksBiography[edit] He was born in Paris
Paris
to a civil servant. After attending the Lycée Saint-Louis he became a clerk in the ministry of war, and won public favour as a poet of the Parnassian school. His first printed verses date from 1864. In 1869 his first play, Le Passant, starring Sarah Bernhardt and Madame Agar,[1] was received with approval at the Odéon theatre, and later Fais ce que dois (1871) and Les Bijoux de la délivrance (1872), short poetic dramas inspired by the Franco-Prussian War, were applauded. After holding a post in the library of the senate, Coppée was chosen in 1878 as archivist of the Comédie Française, an office he held till 1884
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Occult
The occult (from the Latin
Latin
word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".[1] In common English usage, occult refers to "knowledge of the paranormal", as opposed to "knowledge of the measurable",[2] usually referred to as science
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Joséphin Péladan
Joséphin Péladan
Joséphin Péladan
(28 March 1858 in Lyon
Lyon
– 27 June 1918 in Neuilly-sur-Seine) was a French novelist and Martinist. His father was a journalist who had written on prophecies, and professed a philosophic-occult Catholicism. He established the Salon de la Rose + Croix for painters, writers, and musicians sharing his artistic ideals, the Symbolists
Symbolists
in particular.Contents1 Biography 2 Career 3 Ordre du Temple de la Rose + Croix and the Salon de la Rose + Croix 4 Publications 5 See also 6 ReferencesBiography[edit] Péladan was born into a Lyon
Lyon
family that was devoutly Roman Catholic. He studied at Jesuit colleges at Avignon
Avignon
and Nîmes
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Henri Fantin-Latour
Henri Fantin-Latour
Henri Fantin-Latour
(14 January 1836 – 25 August 1904) was a French painter and lithographer best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Public collections holding works by Fantin-Latour 4 Gallery 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit] Henri Fantin-Latour
Henri Fantin-Latour
- A Studio at Les Batignolles, Un atelier aux Batignolles, parody, "Worshipping Manet", 1870He was born Ignace Henri Jean Théodore Fantin-Latour in Grenoble, Isère
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Parnassianism
Parnassianism (or Parnassism) was a French literary style that began during the positivist period of the 19th century, occurring after romanticism and prior to symbolism. The style was influenced by the author Théophile Gautier
Théophile Gautier
as well as by the philosophical ideas of Arthur Schopenhauer. The name is derived from the original Parnassian poets' journal, Le Parnasse contemporain, itself named after Mount Parnassus, home of the Muses of Greek mythology. The anthology was first issued in 1866 and again in 1869 and 1876, including poems by Charles Leconte de Lisle, Théodore de Banville, Sully Prudhomme, Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine, François Coppée
François Coppée
and José María de Heredia. The Parnassians were influenced by Théophile Gautier
Théophile Gautier
and his doctrine of "art for art's sake"
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Camille Pelletan
Charles Camille Pelletan
Camille Pelletan
(28 June 1846 – 4 June 1915) was a French politician and journalist, Minister of Marine in Emile Combes' Bloc des gauches (Left-Wing Blocks) cabinet from 1902 to 1905. He was part of the left-wing of the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party, created in 1902.Contents1 Biography 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksBiography[edit] Pelletan was born in Paris, the son of Eugène Pelletan
Eugène Pelletan
(1813–1884), a writer of some distinction and a noted opponent of the Second Empire. Camille Pelletan
Camille Pelletan
was educated in Paris, passed as licentiate in laws, and studied at the École Nationale des Chartes
École Nationale des Chartes
where he was qualified as an "archiviste paléographe"
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Jean Aicard
Jean François Victor Aicard (4 February 1848 – 13 May 1921) was a French poet, dramatist and novelist.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Selected works 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] He was born in Toulon. His father, Jean Aicard, was a journalist of some distinction,[2] and the son began his career in 1867 with Les Jeunes Croyances, followed in 1870 by a one-act play produced at the Marseille
Marseille
theatre. His poems include: Les Rebellions et les apaisements (1871); Poèmes de Provence (1874), and La Chanson de l'enfant (1876), both of which were crowned by the Academy; Miette et Noré (1880), a Provençal idyll; Le Livre d'heures de l'amour (1887); Jésus (1896). Of his plays the most successful was Le Père Lebonnard (1890), which was originally produced at the Théâtre Libre
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