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Swaraj
Swarāj (Hindi: स्वराज swa- "self", raj "rule") can mean generally self-governance or "self-rule", and was used synonymously with "home-rule" by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati and later on by Mahatma Gandhi,[1] but the word usually refers to Gandhi's concept for Indian independence from foreign domination.[2] Swaraj
Swaraj
lays stress on governance, not by a hierarchical government, but by self governance through individuals and community building. The focus is on political decentralisation.[3] Since this is against the political and social systems followed by Britain, Gandhi's concept of Swaraj
Swaraj
advocated India's discarding British political, economic, bureaucratic, legal, military, and educational institutions.[4] S
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Portuguese Settlement In Chittagong
Portuguese may refer to:anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods Portuguese language, a Romance language Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language
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Direct Democracy
Direct democracy
Direct democracy
or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of most currently established democracies, which are representative democracies.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Examples3.1 Ancient Athens 3.2 Switzerland 3.3 Paris Commune 3.4 United States 3.5 Rojava 3.6 Occupy Wall Street4 Democratic reform trilemma 5 Electronic direct democracy 6 Relation to other movements 7 In schools 8 Contemporary movements 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 Bibliography 12 Further reading 13 External links13.1 MultimediaOverview[edit] In a representative democracy, people vote for representatives who then enact policy initiatives.[1] In direct democracy, people decide on policies without any intermediary
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Politics Of India
Executive:Prime Minister Union Council of Ministers Cabinet Secretary Secretaries: (Defence • Finance • Foreign • Home) Civil services All India
India
Services (IAS • IFS/IFoS • IPS)Parliament: Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(Chairman)
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British Parliamentary System
The Westminster system
Westminster system
is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the British Parliament. The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature
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Representative Democracy
Representative democracy
Representative democracy
(also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.[2] Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, Ireland is a unitary parliamentary republic, and the United States is a federal republic.[3] It is an element of both the parliamentary and the presidential systems of government and is typically used in a lower chamber such as the House of Commons
House of Commons
(United Kingdom), Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(India) or Dáil Éireann (Republic of Ireland), and may be curtailed by constitutional constraints such as an upper chamber. It has been described by some political theorists including Robert A
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Moral Authority
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws. As such, moral authority necessitates the existence of and adherence to truth. Because truth does not change, the principles of moral authority are immutable or unchangeable, although as applied to individual circumstances the dictates of moral authority for action may vary due to the exigencies of human life
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Salvation
Salvation
Salvation
(Latin: salvatio; Ancient Greek: σωτηρία, translit. sōtēría; Hebrew: יָשַׁע‎, translit. yāšaʕ;[1] Arabic: الخلاص‎, translit. al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm[2] or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.[3] In religion, salvation is saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.[4] The academic study of salvation is called soteriology.Contents1 Meaning 2 Abrahamic religions2.1 Judaism 2.2 Christianity2.2.1 Mormonism2.3 Islam2.3.1 Tawhid 2.3.2
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Self (spirituality)
Religious views on the self vary widely. The self is a complex and core subject in many forms of spirituality. In Western psychology, the concept of self comes from Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Carl Rogers where the self is the inner critic. Two types of self are commonly considered - the self that is the ego, also called the learned, superficial self of mind and body, "false self", an egoic creation, and the Self which is sometimes called the "true self", the "Observing Self", or the "Witness".[1] Some Eastern philosophies reject the self as a delusion.[2] In Buddhist psychology, the attachment to self is an illusion that serves as the main cause of suffering and unhappiness.[3]Contents1 Discussion 2 Maslow's theory 3 Bandura 4 Winnicott 5 Rogers on self and self-concept 6 The observing self 7 The witnessing self 8 See also 9 ReferencesDiscussion[edit] Human beings have a self—that is, they are able to look back on themselves as both subjects and objects in the universe
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Utopian
A utopia (/juːˈtoʊpiə/ yoo-TOH-pee-ə) is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.[1][2] The opposite of a utopia is a dystopia
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Dadabhai Navroji
Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917), known as the Grand Old Man of India, was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader. He was a Liberal Party member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895, and the first Indian to be a British MP,[1][2] notwithstanding the Anglo-Indian MP David Ochterlony Dyce Sombre, who was disfranchised for corruption. Naoroji is also credited with the founding of the Indian National Congress, along with A.O. Hume and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha. His book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India[2] brought attention to the draining of India's wealth into Britain
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Common Law
Common law
Common law
(also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.[1][2][3][4][5] The defining characteristic of “common law” is that it arises as precedent. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts, and synthesizes the principles of those past cases as applicable to the current facts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is usually bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision (a principle known as stare decisis)
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Industrialisation
Industrialisation
Industrialisation
or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.[2] As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth.Contents1 Background 2 Social consequences2.1 Urbanisation2.1.1 Exploitation2.2 Changes in family structure3 Current situation 4 See also 5 References 6 F
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Liberal Democracy
Liberal democracy
Liberal democracy
is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism. Also called western democracy, it is characterised by fair, free and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution, either formally written or uncodified, to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract
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Military Organisation
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces, often mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures. Military organization is hierarchical. The use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. In modern times, executive control, management and administration of military organization is typically undertaken by the government through a government department within the structure of public administration, often known as a Ministry of Defense, Department of Defense, or Department of War
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