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Swapan Chattopadhyay
Swapan Chattopadhyay
Swapan Chattopadhyay
(born December 26, 1951) is a particle accelerator physicist noted for his pioneering contributions of innovative concepts, techniques and developments in high energy particle colliders, coherent and incoherent light sources, ultrafast sciences in the femto- and atto- second regimes, superconducting linear accelerators and various applications of interaction of particle and light beams. He has directly contributed to the development of many accelerators around the world, e.g
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Calcutta
Kolkata
Kolkata
/koʊlˈkɑːtə/ (Bengali pronunciation: [kolkat̪a]), formerly Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/ until 2001, is the capital of the Indian state
Indian state
of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata
Port of Kolkata
is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India
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University Of Liverpool
The University                                       Affiliations Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, AACSB, CDIO, EASNWebsite www.liverpool.ac.ukThe University of Liverpool
Liverpool
is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded as a college in 1881, it gained its royal charter in 1903 with the ability to award degrees and is also known to be one of the six original "red brick" civic universities. It comprises three faculties organised into 35 departments and schools. It is a founding member of the Russell Group, the N8 Group
N8 Group
for research collaboration and the University Management school is AACSB accredited.[6][7] Nine Nobel Prize winners
Nobel Prize winners
are amongst its alumni and past faculty and the university offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects
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Particle Accelerator
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.[1] Large accelerators are used in particle physics as colliders (e.g., the LHC
LHC
at CERN, KEKB at KEK
KEK
in Japan, RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Tevatron
Tevatron
at Fermilab), or as synchrotron light sources for the study of condensed matter physics. Smaller particle accelerators are used in a wide variety of applications, including particle therapy for oncological purposes, radioisotope production for medical diagnostics, ion implanters for manufacture of semiconductors, and accelerator mass spectrometers for measurements of rare isotopes such as radiocarbon
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Physicist
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. [1][2] Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, to molecular length scales of chemical and biological interest, to cosmological length scales encompassing the Universe
Universe
as a whole
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Femto-
Femto- (symbol f) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−15 or 0.000000000000001. Adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures,[1] it was added in 1964 to the SI.[2] It is derived from the Danish word femten, meaning "fifteen". Examples of use:The HIV-1
HIV-1
virus weighs about 1 x 10−15 g or 1 fg. Orders of magnitude (mass) a proton has a diameter of about 1.6 to 1.7 femtometres. More examples available.The femtometre shares the unit symbol (fm) with the older non-SI unit fermi, to which it is equivalent
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Atto-
Atto (symbol a) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of 10−18 or 0.000000000000000001. The unit multiple was adopted at the 12th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in Resolution 8.[1] It is derived from the Danish word atten, meaning "eighteen". Examples of its use:Weight of the HIV-1
HIV-1
virus is about 6982100000000000000♠1×10−18 kg or 6982100000000000000♠1×10−15 g, which can be written as 1 fg or 1000 ag. More examples available.SI prefixesv t ePrefix Base 1000 Base 10 Decimal
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Super Proton Synchrotron
The Super Proton
Proton
Synchrotron
Synchrotron
(SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN. It is housed in a circular tunnel, 6.9 kilometres (4.3 mi) in circumference,[1] straddling the border of France and Switzerland near Geneva, Switzerland.[2]Contents1 History 2 Current operations 3 Major discoveries 4 Upgrade for High Luminosity LHC 5 Notes and referencesHistory[edit]A proton–antiproton collision from the UA5 experiment
UA5 experiment
at the SPS in 1982The SPS was designed by a team led by John Adams, director-general of what was then known as Laboratory II. Originally specified as a 300 GeV accelerator, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400 GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June 1976
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Advanced Light Source
The Advanced Light Source
Advanced Light Source
(ALS) is a research facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. One of the world's brightest sources of ultraviolet and soft x-ray light, the ALS is the first "third-generation" synchrotron light source[1] in its energy range, providing multiple extremely bright sources of intense and coherent short-wavelength light for use in scientific experiments by researchers from around the world. It is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by the University of California. The position of ALS director is currently vacant after the recent departure of Roger Falcone. The interim director is Steve Kevan
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Stanford
Stanford University
University
(officially Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Junior University,[11] colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California. Because of its academic strength, wealth, and proximity to Silicon Valley, Stanford is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford
Jane Stanford
in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a former Governor of California
California
and U.S. Senator; he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon
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Free Electron Laser
A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure,[1] hence the term free electron.[2] The free-electron laser is tunable and has the widest frequency range of any laser type,[3] currently ranging in wavelength from microwaves, through terahertz radiation and infrared, to the visible spectrum, ultraviolet, and X-ray.[4]Schematic representation of an undulator, at the core of a free-electron laser.The free-electron laser was invented by John Madey
John Madey
in 1971 at Stanford University.[5] The free-electron laser utilizes technology developed by Hans Motz and his coworkers, who built an undulator at Stanford
Stanford
in 1953,[6][7] using the wiggler magnetic configuration which is one component of a free electron laser
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Daresbury Laboratory
Coordinates: 53°20′35″N 02°38′26″W / 53.34306°N 2.64056°W / 53.34306; -2.64056 Daresbury
Daresbury
Tower, formerly the Nuclear Structure Facility. Daresbury
Daresbury
Laboratory is a scientific research laboratory based at Sci-Tech Daresbury science and innovation campus near Daresbury
Daresbury
in Cheshire, England. The laboratory began operations in 1962 and was officially opened on 16 June 1967 as the Daresbury
Daresbury
Nuclear Physics Laboratory by the then Prime Minister of United Kingdom, Harold Wilson. It is run by the Science and Technology Facilities Council with around three hundred full-time staff. The present director is Prof
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John Cockcroft
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft, OM, KCB, CBE, FRS (27 May 1897 – 18 September 1967) was a British physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
in 1951 for splitting the atomic nucleus with Ernest Walton, and was instrumental in the development of nuclear power. After service on the Western Front with the Royal Field Artillery during the Great War, Cockcroft studied electrical engineering at Manchester Municipal College of Technology. He then won a scholarship to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he sat the tripos exam in June 1924, becoming a wrangler. Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
accepted Cockcroft as a research student at the Cavendish Laboratory, and Cockcroft completed his doctorate under Rutherford's supervision in 1928. With Ernest Walton and Mark Oliphant
Mark Oliphant
he built what became known as a Cockcroft–Walton accelerator
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University Of Manchester
Blue, gold, purple                                                              Affiliations Universities Research Association Sutton 30 Russell Group EUA N8 Group NWUA ACUWebsite manchester.ac.ukThe University of Manchester
Manchester
is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester
Manchester
Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.[6][7] The University of Manchester
Manchester
is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late-19th century. The main campus is south of Manchester
Manchester
city centre on Oxford Road
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CERN
Coordinates: 46°14′03″N 6°03′10″E / 46.23417°N 6.05278°E / 46.23417; 6.05278European Organization for Nuclear Research Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaireMember statesFormation September 29, 1954; 63 years ago (1954-09-29)[1]Headquarters Meyrin, Canton of Geneva, SwitzerlandMembership22 countries Austria  Belgium  Bulgaria  Czech Republic  Denmark  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Israel  Italy  Netherlands  Norway  Poland  Portugal  Romania  Slovakia  Spain  Sweden   Switzerland  United Kingdom Associate members:  Cyprus  India  Lithuania  Pakistan  Serbia  Slovenia  Turkey  UkraineOfficial languagesEnglish and FrenchCouncil PresidentSijbrand de Jong[2]Director GeneralFabiola Gianotti<
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Lancaster University
" Quaker
Quaker
Grey" and red                                          Colleges   Bowland    Cartmel    County    Furness    Fylde    Graduate    Grizedale    Lonsdale    PendleAffiliations N8 Group, ACU, AACSB, AMBA, NWUA, EQUIS, Universities UKWebsite www.lancaster.ac.ukLancaster University, also officially known as the University of Lancaster,[5] is a public research university in the City of Lancaster, Lancashire, England
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