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Svitrigaila
Švitrigaila
Švitrigaila
(before 1370 – 10 February 1452) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1430 to 1432.[2] He spent most of his life in largely unsuccessful dynastic struggles against his cousins Vytautas
Vytautas
and Sigismund Kęstutaitis.Contents1 Early life and Vitebsk
Vitebsk
rebellion 2 Struggle against Vytautas
Vytautas
(1392–1430)2.1 Defection to Hungary 2.2 Defection to Prussia 2.3 Defection to Moscow and imprisonment 2.4 Escape to Hungary and reconciliation3 Struggle against Sigismund3.1 Grand Duke of Lithuania 3.2 Coup and civil war4 Later years 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEarly life and Vitebsk
Vitebsk
rebellion[edit] Švitrigaila
Švitrigaila
was born to Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife Uliana of Tver
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Alexander Guagnini
Alexander
Alexander
(/ˈæləɡzˈændər/, /ˈæləɡzˈɑːndər/) is a male given name, and a less common surname. The name is derived from the Greek "Ἀλέξανδρος" (Aléxandroş), meaning "defender of men" from "αλεξω" (alexo), meaning "to defend, help" and "ανηρ" (aner), meaning "man" (genitive "ανδρος")
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Treaty Of Salynas
Treaty of Salynas (German: Frieden von Sallinwerder, Lithuanian: Salyno sutartis) was a peace treaty signed on 12 October 1398 by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen
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Vitebsk
Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Belarusian: Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk, pronounced [ˈvʲitsʲepsk]; Russian: Витебск, pronounced [ˈvʲitʲɪpsk], Lithuanian: Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus. The capital of the Vitebsk
Vitebsk
Region, it had 342,381 inhabitants in 2004, making it the country's fourth-largest city
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Jan Długosz
Jan Długosz
Jan Długosz
(Polish pronunciation: [ˈjan ˈdwuɡɔʂ]; 1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. He is considered Poland's first historian.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Sources 6 External linksLife[edit]Jan Długosz Jan Długosz
Jan Długosz
is best known for his Annales seu cronici incliti regni Poloniae (Annals or Chronicles of the Famous Kingdom of Poland), covering events in southeastern Europe, but also in Western Europe, from 965 to 1480, the year he died.[2] His work was first printed in 1701-1703. Whenever he bothers to mention himself in the book, he writes of himself in the third person. He belonged to the Wieniawa coat-of-arms. Długosz was a canon at Kraków,[1] educated in the University of Krakow
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Aleksander Narcyz Przezdziecki
Aleksander Narcyz Przezdziecki (1814–1871) was a Polish historian.This Polish biographical article is a stub
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Liubartas
Demetrius of Liubar
Liubar
or Liubartas
Liubartas
(also Lubart, Lubko, Lubardus, baptized Dmitry; died c. 1383) was Prince of Lutsk
Lutsk
and Liubar (Volhynia) (1323–1383), Prince of Zhytomyr (1363–1374), Grand Prince of Volhynia
Volhynia
(1340–1383), Grand Prince of Galicia and Volhynia (1340–1349).Contents1 Biography 2 Family 3 See also 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Liubartas
Liubartas
was the youngest son of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania. In the early 1320s he married a daughter of Andrew of Galicia
Andrew of Galicia
and ruled Lutsk
Lutsk
with Liubar
Liubar
(today town in Zhytomyr Oblast) in eastern Volhynia.[1] After Andrew and his brother Leo II died around 1322, Galicia– Volhynia
Volhynia
did not have a male successor
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Volhynia
Volhynia
Volhynia
(/voʊˈlɪniə/),[citation needed] also Volynia or Volyn (Polish: Wołyń, Ukrainian: Волинь, translit. Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine. The borders of the region are not clearly defined, while the territory that still carries the name is Volyn Oblast, located in western Ukraine. Volhynia
Volhynia
has changed hands numerous times throughout history and been divided among competing powers. Among important cities are Lutsk, Rivne, Volodymyr-Volynskyi (Volodymyr), Iziaslav, Novohrad-Volynskyi
Novohrad-Volynskyi
(Zviahel)
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Galicia–Volhynia Wars
Galicia–Volhynia
Galicia–Volhynia
Wars were several wars fought in the years 1340–1392 over the succession in the Principality of Galicia–Volhynia
Galicia–Volhynia
(in modern Poland and Ukraine). After Boleslaw-Yuri II was poisoned by local nobles in 1340, both Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland advanced claims over the principality. After a prolonged conflict, Galicia–Volhynia
Galicia–Volhynia
was divided between Poland (Galicia) and Lithuania (Volhynia) and the principality ceased to exist as an independent state. Poland acquired a territory of approximately 52,000 square kilometres (20,000 sq mi) with 200,000 inhabitants.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Conflicts2.1 First stage 2.2 Second stage 2.3 Third stage3 ReferencesBackground[edit] Brothers Andrew and Lev II died ca. 1322, leaving no male successor in Galicia–Volhynia
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Duchy Of Cieszyn
The Duchy of Teschen (German: Herzogtum Teschen), also Duchy of Cieszyn (Polish: Księstwo Cieszyńskie) or Duchy of Těšín (Czech: Těšínské knížectví, was one of the Duchies of Silesia centered on Cieszyn (Teschen) in Upper Silesia. It was split off the Silesian Duchy of Opole and Racibórz in 1281 during the feudal division of Poland and was ruled by Silesian dukes of the Piast dynasty from 1290 until the line became extinct with the death of Duchess Elizabeth Lucretia in 1653.[1] The ducal lands initially comprised former Lesser Polish territories east of the Biała River, which in about 1315 again split off as the Polish Duchy of Oświęcim, while the remaining duchy became a fiefdom of the Bohemian kings in 1327 and was incorporated into the Lands of the Bohemian Crown by 1347
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Kingdom Of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom[2][3] (Czech: České království; German: Königreich Böhmen; Latin: Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State
Imperial State
in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Bohemian king was a prince-elector of the empire
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Sigismund Of Luxemburg
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
– 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany
King of Germany
from 1411, King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
from 1419, King of Italy
Italy
from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.[1] Sigismund von Luxembourg was the leader of the last West European Crusade - the Crusade of Nicopolis of 1396 to liberate Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and save Constantinople
Constantinople
from the Turks. Afterwards, he founded the Dragon Order to fight the Turks
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Navahrudak
Navahrudak
Navahrudak
(Belarusian: Навагрудак), more commonly known by its Russian name Novogrudok (Новогрудок) (Lithuanian: Naugardukas; Polish: Nowogródek; Yiddish: נאָווהאַרדאָק‎ Novhardok) is a city in the Grodno Region of Belarus. In the 14th century it was an episcopal see of the Metropolitanate of Lithuania. It is a possible first capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, with Trakai
Trakai
also noted as a possibility
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Drutsk
Druck or Drutsk
Drutsk
(Belarusian: Друцк, [drutsk]; Polish: Druck, Russian: Друцк, also known as Дрютескъ (Dryutesk) or Дрюческъ (Druchesk) in the Middle Ages), is a historical town in Belarus, 40 kilometres (ca. 25 miles) west of Mahilyow. The town was established in 1078 as an outpost of the Principality of Polatsk
Polatsk
on the road from Polatsk
Polatsk
to Kiev
Kiev
and Chernihov. According to the Drutsk
Drutsk
Gospel, the town was built around one of the oldest Christian churches in White Ruthenia erected in 1001. In the 12th century and 13th century it was a centre of the early medvieval Principality of Druck, ruled by the dukes of the Polatsk branch of the Rurikid
Rurikid
dynasty
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Podolia
Podolia
Podolia
or Podilia (Ukrainian: Подíлля, Podillja, Russian: Подо́лье, Podolʹje, Turkish: Podolya, Polish: Podole, German: Podolien, Lithuanian: Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine
Ukraine
and in northeastern Moldova
Moldova
(i.e. northern Transnistria). The term is derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", and dol, "valley" (see dale).Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and Polish Crown 2.2 Russian Empire 2.3 Between Poland and the Soviet Union3 Culture 4 References 5 External linksGeography[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Spytek Of Melsztyn (died 1399)
Spytek of Melsztyn
Melsztyn
(Polish: Spytek z Melsztyna or Spytko Melsztyński) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic). Spytek was owner of Melsztyn
Melsztyn
estates. He served as Court Marshal since 1373, voivode of Kraków Voivodeship
Kraków Voivodeship
since 1381, starosta of Biec since 1383 and Kraków
Kraków
since 1390. He initiated the marriage of Queen Jadwiga of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania - to become king of Poland
Poland
- Władysław II Jagiełło.[7] In 1391–1396 Spytek reclaimed the Land of Wieluń
Wieluń
[8] and Orzeszków from Prince Władysław Opolczyk
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