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Svetlana Alexievich
SVETLANA ALEXANDROVNA ALEXIEVICH (born 31 May 1948) is a Belarusian investigative journalist and non-fiction prose writer who writes in Russian. She was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
"for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time". She is the first writer from Belarus to receive the award. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Literary work * 3 Awards and honours * 4 Books * 5 References * 6 External links * 6.1 Interviews * 6.2 Excerpts * 6.3 Articles about Svetlana Alexievich
Svetlana Alexievich
* 6.4 Other BACKGROUNDBorn in the west Ukrainian town of Stanislav (since 1962 Ivano-Frankivsk) to a Belarusian father and a Ukrainian mother, Svetlana Alexievich
Svetlana Alexievich
grew up in Belarus
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Varlam Shalamov
VARLAM TIKHONOVICH SHALAMOV (Russian : Варла́м Ти́хонович Шала́мов; June 18, 1907 – January 17, 1982), baptized as VARLAAM, was a Russian writer, journalist, poet and Gulag survivor. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 First arrest * 1.2 Second arrest * 1.3 After release * 1.4 The Kolyma Tales * 1.5 Last years * 2 Legacy * 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Publications * 7 External links BIOGRAPHY Shalamov's house Varlam Shalamov was born in Vologda , Vologda Governorate , a Russian city with a rich culture famous for its wooden architecture, to the family of a hereditary Russian Orthodox priest and teacher, Father Tikhon Nikolayevich Shalamov, a graduate of the Vologda Seminary . At first young Shalamov was named and baptized after the patron of Vologda, Saint Varlaam Khutinskiy (1157–1210); Shalamov later changed his name to the more common Varlam
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Soviet War In Afghanistan
SUNNI MUJAHIDEEN : * Jamiat-e Islami * Shura-e Nazar * Gulbuddin faction * Maktab al-Khadamat * Khalis faction * Ittehad i-Islami * IRM * NLF * NIFA Supported by: * Pakistan
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Oktyabr (magazine)
OKTYABR (meaning October in English) is a monthly Russian literary magazine , based in Moscow. In addition to Novy Mir and Znamya the monthly is a leading and deep-rooted literary magazine in Russia. HISTORYOktyabr was launched in 1924 by a group with the same name, "Oktyabr", which was founded by the poet Alexander Bezymensky and the novelist Yury Libedinsky in 1922. It was an official and conservative magazine of the Soviet Union . Particularly during the post-World War II period it became one of the most pro-government publications and was instrumental in shaping the image of Soviet poetry . The editorial board of the magazine in the Soviet era included those figures recognized by the state. The first chief editor was Labory Kalmanson who was also known as G. Lelevich. Fyodor Ivanovich served as chief editor of the monthly for two times (from 1931 to 1954, and then from 1957 to 1961). Vsevolod Kochetov was one of the magazine's chief editors in the 1960s
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Monologue
In theatre , a MONOLOGUE (from Greek : μονόλογος, from μόνος mónos, "alone, solitary" and λόγος lógos, "speech") is a speech presented by a single character , most often to express their mental thoughts aloud, though sometimes also to directly address another character or the audience . Monologues are common across the range of dramatic media (plays , films , etc.), as well as in non-dramatic media such as poetry . Monologues share much in common with several other literary devices including soliloquies , apostrophes , and aside . There are, however, distinctions between each of these devices
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Vasil Bykaŭ
VASíL UłADZíMIRAVIč BýKAŭ (often spelled VASIL BYKOV, Belarusian : Васі́ль Уладзі́міравіч Бы́каў, Russian : Василь Влади́мирович Быков) (June 19, 1924 – June 22, 2003) was a prolific author of novels and novellas about World War II
World War II
and a significant figure in Belarusian literature and civic thought. His work earned him endorsements for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
nomination from, among others, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates Joseph Brodsky and Czesław Miłosz
Czesław Miłosz
. CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Awards * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links LIFE AND CAREER Vasil Bykaŭ
Vasil Bykaŭ
was born in the village Byčki, not far from Viciebsk in 1924. In 1941 he was in Ukraine when Germany
Germany
attacked the USSR
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German Occupation Of Belarus During World War II
The OCCUPATION OF BELARUS BY NAZI GERMANY started with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa ) and ended in August 1944 with the Soviet Operation Bagration . The western parts of the Belorussian SSR (as of 1940) became part of the Reichskommissariat Ostland in 1941, but in 1943 the German authorities allowed local collaborators to set up a client state, the Belarusian Central Rada , that lasted until the Soviets liberated the region. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Invasion * 3 Occupation * 4 War crimes * 4.1 Nazi units * 4.2 Notable Nazi personnel * 4.3 Other units and participants * 5 Holocaust * 6 Post-occupation * 7 See also * 7.1 People * 8 Notes * 9 Further reading * 10 External links BACKGROUND Soviet map made in 1940: only months earlier Poland's territories (marked in yellow) were invaded by the Soviet Union
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Eastern Slavic Naming Customs
EASTERN SLAVIC NAMING CUSTOMS are the traditional ways of determining a person's name in countries influenced by East Slavic languages , mainly Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, and some South Slavic nations, including Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Serbia
Serbia
, and Macedonia . They are also featured in the non-Slavic Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
as a result of the expansion of Russia
Russia
and Russification
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Belarusian Language
BELARUSIAN (/bɛləˈruːsiən/ ; беларуская мова belaruskaya mova ) is an official language of Belarus , along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Russia , Ukraine , and small parts in far-eastern Poland . Before Belarus gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the language was known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, transliterating the Russian name, белорусский язык, or alternatively as White Ruthenian (/ruːˈθiːniən/ ) or White Russian (with the meaning Rus' but not Russia). Following independence, it also became known as Belarusian. Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. To some extent, Russian , Ukrainian , and Belarusian are mutually intelligible
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Janka Bryl
JANKA (YANKA) BRYL (Belarusian : Янка Брыль, August 4, 1917 – July 25, 2006) was a Belarusian writer best known for his short stories. CONTENTS* 1 Early life * 1.1 World War II
World War II
* 2 Career * 2.1 Literature * 3 External links * 4 References EARLY LIFEFive years after Bryl was born in Odessa
Odessa
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, the family moved back to the village of Zahora in his parents' native Kareličy District of Hrodna , then part of Poland
Poland
(it is now in Belarus). WORLD WAR IIBryl served in the Polish Navy at the beginning of World War II
World War II
, and he was captured by the Germans in 1939. He escaped in 1941. After October 1942 he was a messenger for a partisan brigade, later becoming a scout for the partisan Komsomolets brigade
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Germans
GERMANS (German : Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe
Central Europe
, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history . German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans
Germans
has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
since the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany
Germany
in 1990, Germans
Germans
constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
divide
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Communist Ideology
In political and social sciences , COMMUNISM (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society , which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes , money and the state . Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
, anarchism (anarchist communism ) and the political ideologies grouped around both
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Journalist
A JOURNALIST is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism . A journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. CONTENTS * 1 Roles * 2 Journalistic freedom * 3 Journalist
Journalist
& source relationship * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ROLESA REPORTER is a type of journalist who researches , writes, and reports on information in order to present in sources , conduct interviews , engage in research, and make reports
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Novaya Gazeta
NOVAYA GAZETA (Russian : Новая газета, IPA: , En. New Gazette) is a Russian newspaper well known in its country for its critical and investigative coverage of Russian political and social affairs. Ex-editor in chief Dmitry Muratov shortly after having received the Four Freedoms Award on behalf of Novaya Gazeta. It is published in Moscow, in regions within Russia, and in some foreign countries. As of 2009, the print edition is published on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; English articles on the website are published more erratically. Six Novaya Gazeta
Novaya Gazeta
journalists, including Yury Shchekochikhin , Anna Politkovskaya and Anastasia Baburova , have been murdered since 2001, in connection with their investigations
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Lettre Ulysses Award
The LETTRE ULYSSES AWARD FOR THE ART OF REPORTAGE has been given annually since 2003 for the best texts in the genre of literary reportage , which must have been first published during the previous two years. The award was initiated by Lettre International in Berlin
Berlin
, and is organized by the Foundation Lettre International Award, a joint partnership between Lettre International and the Aventis Foundation. The Goethe-Institut
Goethe-Institut
also cooperates with the project. A polyglot jury of experienced writers representing eleven of the major linguistic regions of the world seeks the best international texts in the genre and decides on a shortlist of seven, eventually choosing three winners from among them. The members of the jury are appointed by the organizer
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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