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Svetlana Alexievich
Svetlana Alexandrovna Alexievich[1] (born 31 May 1948) is a Belarusian investigative journalist and non-fiction prose writer who writes in Russian. She was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
"for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time".[2][3][4][5] She is the first writer from Belarus to receive the award.[6][7]Contents1 Background 2 Literary work 3 Awards and honours 4 Books 5 References 6 External links6.1 Interviews 6.2 Excerpts 6.3 Articles about Svetlana Alexievich 6.4 Academic Articles about Svetlana Alexievich's works 6.5 OtherBackground[edit] Born in the west Ukrainian town of Stanislav (since 1962 Ivano-Frankivsk) to a Belarusian father and a Ukrainian mother,[8] Svetlana Alexievich
Svetlana Alexievich
grew up in Belarus
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Eastern Slavic Naming Customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs
are the traditional ways of identifying a person by name in countries influenced by East Slavic languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian: in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
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Oktyabr (magazine)
Oktyabr (meaning October in English) is a monthly Russian literary magazine, based in Moscow.[1] In addition to Novy Mir and Znamya
Znamya
the monthly is a leading and deep-rooted literary magazine in Russia.[2] History[edit] Oktyabr was launched in 1924 by a group with the same name, "Oktyabr", which was founded by the poet Alexander Bezymensky and the novelist Yury Libedinsky in 1922.[3] It was an official and conservative magazine of the Soviet Union.[4][5] Particularly during the post-World War II period it became one of the most pro-government publications and was instrumental in shaping the image of Soviet poetry.[6] The editorial board of the magazine in the Soviet era included those figures recognized by the state.[6] The first chief editor was Labory Kalmanson who was also known as G
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Patronymic
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic),[1][2] or an even earlier male ancestor. A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic. Each is a means of conveying lineage. In such instances, a person is usually referred to by their given name, rather than their patronymic. Patronymics are still in use, including mandatory use, in many countries worldwide, although their use has largely been replaced by or transformed into patronymic surnames
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Belarusian Language
 Belarus   Poland
Poland
(in Gmina Orla, Gmina Narewka, Gmina Czyże, Gmina Hajnówka
Hajnówka
and town of Hajnówka)Collective Security Treaty OrganizationRecognised minority language in Czech Republic[3]  Ukraine[4][5]  Lithuania[citation needed]Regulated by National Academy of Sciences of BelarusLanguage codesISO 639-1 beISO 639-2 belISO 639-3 belGlottolog bela1254[6]Linguasphere 53-AAA-eb < 53-AAA-e (varieties: 53-AAA-eba to 53-AAA-ebg)Belarusian-speaking world Legend: Dark blue - territory, where Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is used chiefly; Light blue - historical range[7]This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Janka Bryl
Janka (Yanka) Bryl (Belarusian: Янка Брыль, August 4, 1917 – July 25, 2006) was a Belarusian writer best known for his short stories.Contents1 Early life1.1 World War II2 Career2.1 Literature3 External links 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Five years after Bryl was born in Odessa, Ukraine, the family moved back to the village of Zahora in his parents' native Kareličy District of Hrodna,[1] then part of Poland (it is now in Belarus). World War II[edit] Bryl served in the Polish Navy at the beginning of World War II, and he was captured by the Germans in 1939. He escaped in 1941. After October 1942 he was a messenger for a partisan brigade, later becoming a scout for the partisan Komsomolets brigade. He edited the Freedom Flag newspaper, and authored various anti-Nazi leaflets
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Germans
Germans
Germans
(German: Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe,[24] who share a common German ancestry, culture and history
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German Occupation Of Belarus During World War II
The occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany started with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa) and ended in August 1944 with the Soviet Operation Bagration. The western parts of the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (as of 1940) became part of the Reichskommissariat Ostland in 1941, but in 1943 the German authorities allowed local collaborators to set up a client state, the Belarusian Central Rada, that lasted until the Soviets liberated the region.Contents1 Background 2 Invasion 3 Occupation 4 War crimes4.1 Nazi units 4.2 Notable Nazi personnel 4.3 Other units and participants5 Holocaust 6 Post-occupation 7 See also7.1 People8 Notes 9 Further reading 10 External linksBackground[edit]Soviet map made in 1940: only months earlier Poland's territories (marked in yellow) were invaded by the Soviet Union. All Polish cities annexed to Belorussian SSR are renamed in Russian, and the size of the map is nearly doubled
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Vasil Bykaŭ
Vasíl Uładzímiravič Býkaŭ (often spelled Vasil Bykov, Belarusian: Васі́ль Уладзі́міравіч Бы́каў, Russian: Василь Влади́мирович Быков) (June 19, 1924 – June 22, 2003) was a prolific author of novels and novellas about World War II
World War II
and a significant figure in Belarusian literature and civic thought. His work earned him endorsements for the Nobel Prize nomination from, among others, Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates Joseph Brodsky and Czesław Miłosz.Contents1 Life and career 2 Awards 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksLife and career[edit] Vasil Bykaŭ
Vasil Bykaŭ
was born in the village Byčki, not far from Viciebsk in 1924. In 1941 he was in Ukraine when Germany
Germany
attacked the USSR. At first seventeen-year-old Bykaŭ dug trenches – then he volunteered for the Red Army
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Varlam Shalamov
Varlam Tikhonovich Shalamov (Russian: Варла́м Ти́хонович Шала́мов; June 18, 1907 – January 17, 1982), baptized as Varlaam, was a Russian writer, journalist, poet and Gulag
Gulag
survivor.Contents1 Biography1.1 First arrest 1.2 Second arrest 1.3 After release 1.4 The Kolyma
Kolyma
Tales 1.5 Last years2 Legacy 3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 References 6 Publications 7 External linksBiography[edit]Shalamov's house Varlam Shalamov
Varlam Shalamov
was born in Vologda, Vologda
Vologda
Governorate, a Russian city with a rich culture famous for its wooden architecture, to the family of a hereditary Russian Orthodox
Russian Orthodox
priest and teacher, Father Tikhon Nikolayevich Shalamov, a graduate of the Vologda
Vologda
Seminary
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Soviet War In Afghanistan
 Soviet Union 40th Army Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Supported by:  India[1][2]   East Germany
East Germany
(1979–1980)[3] Sunni Mujahideen: Jamiat-e Islami[4]Shura-e Nazar Gulbuddin faction[4]Maktab al-Khadamat Khalis faction[4] Ittehad i-Islami (IULA)[4] Harakat-i-Inqilab (IRM)[4] Jebh-e Nejat-e Melli (ANLF)[4] Mahaz-e Milli (NIFA)[4]Supported by: Pakistan
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Monologue
In theatre, a monologue (from Greek: μονόλογος, from μόνος mónos, "alone, solitary" and λόγος lógos, "speech") is a speech presented by a single character, most often to express their mental thoughts aloud, though sometimes also to directly address another character or the audience. Monologues are common across the range of dramatic media (plays, films,[1] etc.), as well as in non-dramatic media such as poetry.[2] Monologues share much in common with several other literary devices including soliloquies, apostrophes, and aside
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Communist Ideology
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal")[1][2] is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution
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Journalist
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics.[1] For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics.Contents1 Roles 2 Journalistic freedom 3 Journalist
Journalist
& source relationship 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksRoles[edit] A reporter is a type of journalist who researches, writes, and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, and make reports
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Euphrosyne Of Polotsk
Euphrosyne of Polotsk
Polotsk
(or Polatsk, Połack) (Belarusian: Еўфрасіння Полацкая; 1104–1167) was the granddaughter of a prince of Polotsk, Vseslav, and daughter of Prince Svyatoslav of Polotsk. She is one of the 15 patron saints of Belarus, whose lives are celebrated in the Belarusian Orthodox Church, on the first Sunday after Pentecost, a feast that was instituted in the year of her canonization in 1984.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Veneration 3 Cross of Saint
Saint
Euphrosyne 4 See also 5 ReferencesLife[edit] Predslava was born between 1101 and 1104, into the Rurik
Rurik
noble family, members of which were the dukes of the principality of Polotsk, in what is modern day Belarus. Her father was Prince Svyatoslav-Georgy Vseslavich, second son of Vseslav the Sorcerer.[2] She refused all proposals of marriage and, without her parents' knowledge, ran away to the convent where her aunt was the abbess
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