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Suspension (chemistry)
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation. The particles may be visible to the naked eye, usually must be larger than 1 micrometer, and will eventually settle. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve, but get suspended throughout the bulk of the solvent, left floating around freely in the medium.[1] The internal phase (solid) is dispersed throughout the external phase (fluid) through mechanical agitation, with the use of certain excipients or suspending agents. An example of a suspension would be sand in water. The suspended particles are visible under a microscope and will settle over time if left undisturbed
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Centrifugation
Centrifugation
Centrifugation
is a technique which involves the application of centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium and rotor speed.[1] This process is used to separate two miscible substances, but also to analyze the hydrodynamic properties of macromolecules.[2] More-dense components of the mixture migrate away from the axis of the centrifuge, while less-dense components of the mixture migrate towards the axis. Chemists and biologists may increase the effective gravitational force on a test tube so as to more rapidly and completely cause the precipitate (pellet) to gather on the bottom of the tube. The remaining solution (supernatant) may be discarded with a pipette.[citation needed]
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Flour
Flour
Flour
is a substance, generally a powder, made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods. Cereal
Cereal
flour is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour
Wheat flour
is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, European, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African
North African
cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries. Wheat
Wheat
is the most common base for flour. Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye
Rye
flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe. Cereal
Cereal
flour consists either of the endosperm, germ, and bran together (whole-grain flour) or of the endosperm alone (refined flour)
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International Union Of Pure And Applied Chemistry
The International
International
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International
International
Council for Science (ICSU).[2] IUPAC is registered in Zürich, Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director,[3] currently Lynn Soby.[4] IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
for the advancement of chemistry. Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences, or other bodies representing chemists
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Turbidity
Turbidity
Turbidity
is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality. Fluids can contain suspended solid matter consisting of particles of many different sizes. While some suspended material will be large enough and heavy enough to settle rapidly to the bottom of the container if a liquid sample is left to stand (the settable solids), very small particles will settle only very slowly or not at all if the sample is regularly agitated or the particles are colloidal. These small solid particles cause the liquid to appear turbid. Turbidity
Turbidity
(or haze) is also applied to transparent solids such as glass or plastic
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Cloud
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body.[1] The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earth's homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere; Latin
Latin
and common
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Nitrate
Nitrate
Nitrate
is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO− 3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u. Nitrates also describe the organic functional group RONO2. These nitrate esters are a specialized class of explosives.Contents1 Structure 2 Properties and diet 3 Occurrence 4 Uses 5 Detection 6 Toxicity6.1 Poisoning 6.2 Human health effects 6.3 Marine toxicity7 Nitrate
Nitrate
overview 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksStructure[edit] The anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of −1. This results from a combination formal charge in which each of the three oxygens carries a −​2⁄3 charge, whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, all these adding up to formal charge of the polyatomic nitrate ion
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Sulfate
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO2− 4. Sulfate
Sulfate
is the spelling recommended by IUPAC, but sulphate is used in British English. Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid.Contents1 Structure 2 Bonding 3 Preparation 4 Properties 5 Uses and occurrence5.1 Commercial applications 5.2 Occurrence in nature6 History 7 Environmental effects7.1 Main effects on climate8 Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) 9 Other sulfur oxyanions 10 Notes 11 See also 12 ReferencesStructure[edit] The sulfate anion consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The symmetry is the same as that of methane
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Volcano
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Biogenic
A biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes. It may be either constituents, or secretions, of plants or animals. A more specific name for these substances is biomolecules.Contents1 Examples 2 Abiogenic (Opposite) 3 See also 4 ReferencesExamples[edit]Coal and oil are possible examples of constituents which may have undergone changes over geologic time periods. Chalk and limestone are examples of secretions (marine animal shells) which are of geologic age. grass and wood are biogenic constituents of contemporary origin. Pearls, silk and ambergris are examples of secretions of contemporary origin.Abiogenic (Opposite)[edit] An abiogenic substance or process does not result from the present or past activity of living organisms. Abiogenic products may, e.g., be minerals, other inorganic compounds, as well as simple organic compounds (e.g
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Sea Salt
Sea salt
Sea salt
is salt produced from the evaporation of seawater, rather than by being extracted from sedimentary deposits. It is used in cooking and cosmetics. It is also called bay salt[1] or solar salt.[2] Like mineral salt, production of sea salt has been dated to prehistoric times. There is little or no health benefit to using sea salt over other forms of sodium chloride salts.[3]Contents1 Composition 2 Historical production 3 Taste 4 Health 5 See also 6 ReferencesComposition[edit] Commercially available sea salts on the market today vary widely in the chemical composition of the residue which is not sodium chloride. Historical production[edit] Sea salt
Sea salt
is mentioned in the Vinaya Pitaka, a Buddhist scripture compiled in the mid-5th century BC.[4] The principle of production is evaporation of the water from the sea brine
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Soot
Soot
Soot
/sʊt/ is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.[1] It is more properly restricted to the product of the gas-phase combustion process[citation needed] but is commonly extended to include the residual pyrolysed fuel particles such as coal, cenospheres, charred wood, and petroleum coke that may become airborne during pyrolysis and that are more properly identified as cokes or chars. Soot
Soot
causes cancer and lung disease, and may be the second-biggest human cause of global warming.[2]Contents1 Sources 2 Description 3 Soot
Soot
formation mechanism 4 Hazards 5 Soot
Soot
modeling 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksSources[edit] Soot
Soot
as an airborne contaminant in the environment has many different sources, all of which are results of some form of pyrolysis
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Earth's Atmosphere
The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth
Earth
and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
protects life on Earth
Earth
by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen,[2] 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere
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Farris Effect (rheology)
In rheology, the Farris Effect describes the decrease of the viscosity of a suspension upon increasing the dispersity of the solid additive, at constant volume fraction of the solid additive. That is, that a broader particle size distribution yields a lower viscosity than a narrow particle size distribution, for the same concentration of particles. The phenomenon is names after Richard J. Farris, who modeled the effect.[1] The effect is relevant whenever suspensions are flowing, particularly for suspensions with high loading fractions. Examples include hydraulic fracturing fluids, metal injection molding feedstocks, cosmetics, and various geological processes including sedimentation and lava flows.[2] References[edit]^ Farris, Richard J (1968). "Prediction of the Viscosity of Multimodal Suspensions from Unimodal Viscosity Data". Transactions of The Society of Rheology. 12 (2): 281–301. doi:10.1122/1.549109
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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