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Surveillance Footage
Closed-circuit television
Closed-circuit television
(CCTV), also known as video surveillance,[1][2] is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint (P2MP), or mesh wired or wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, stores, and other areas where security is needed. Though Videotelephony
Videotelephony
is seldom called "CCTV" one exception is the use of video in distance education, where it is an important tool.[3][4] Surveillance
Surveillance
of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world
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China Central Television
China
China
Central Television (formerly Beijing
Beijing
Television), commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the predominant state television broadcaster in the People's Republic of China
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Selection Bias
Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.[1] It is sometimes referred to as the selection effect. The phrase "selection bias" most often refers to the distortion of a statistical analysis, resulting from the method of collecting samples
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King's Lynn
King's Lynn
King's Lynn
/ˌkɪŋz ˈlɪn/, known until 1537 as Bishop's Lynn,[2] is a seaport and market town in Norfolk, England, about 98 miles (158 km) north of London, 36 miles (58 km) north-east of Peterborough, 44 miles (71 km) north north-east of Cambridge
Cambridge
and 44 miles (71 km) west of Norwich.[2] The population of the town is 42,800.[1] The town has two theatres (St George's Guildhall and Corn Exchange), three museums (Stories of Lynn, Lynn Museum and True's Yard) and several other cultural and sporting venues. There are three secondary schools and one college
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Home Office
The Home Office
Home Office
(HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order. As such it is responsible for the police, fire and rescue services, visas and immigration and the Security Service (MI5). It is also in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was formerly responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service
Her Majesty's Prison Service
and the National Probation
Probation
Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice
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Murder Of James Bulger
James Patrick Bulger (16 March 1990[1] – 12 February 1993) was a boy from Kirkby, Merseyside, England, who was murdered on 12 February 1993, at the age of two. He was abducted, tortured and killed by two ten-year-old boys, Robert Thompson (born 23 August 1982) and Jon Venables (born 13 August 1982).[2][3] Bulger was led away from the New Strand Shopping Centre in Bootle
Bootle
whilst his mother took her eyes off him momentarily. His mutilated body was found on a railway line 2.5 miles (4 km) away in Walton, Liverpool, two days after his murder. Thompson and Venables were charged on 20 February 1993 with Bulger's abduction and murder. They were found guilty on 24 November 1993, making them the youngest convicted murderers in modern English history
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Narrow-bandwidth Television
Narrow-bandwidth television (NBTV) is a type of television designed to fit into a low-bandwidth channel, in the extreme case using amateur radio voice frequency channels that only range up to a few kilohertz (though channels ranging into a few tens of kilohertz and beyond can also be used). This is in contrast to broadcast TV systems that use a channel about six to eight megahertz wide.Contents1 Design 2 Mechanical TV standards 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDesign[edit] There are two ways to make this work: reduce the scan rate, or reduce the image size. When the scan rate is reduced, this is referred to as slow-scan TV. With the latter type, the number of lines in an image may be reduced to just a few dozen. The earliest mechanical television systems often used narrow channels for sending moving images. Often, the images were only a few dozen lines in size
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Frame Rate
Frame rate
Frame rate
(expressed in frames per second or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames appear on a display. The term applies equally to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. Frame rate
Frame rate
may also be called the frame frequency, and be expressed in hertz.Contents1 Frame rate
Frame rate
and human vision 2 Film
Film
and video2.1 Silent films 2.2 Sound films 2.3 Animation 2.4 Modern video standards3 See also 4 References 5 External links Frame rate
Frame rate
and human vision[edit] Further information: Motion perception The temporal sensitivity and resolution of human vision varies depending on the type and characteristics of visual stimulus, and it differs between individuals
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Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Northeastern University
(NU, formerly NEU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, established in 1898. It is categorized as an R1 institution (Doctoral Universities: Highest Research Activity) by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.[5] The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in the Fenway-Kenmore, Roxbury, South End, and Back Bay
Back Bay
neighborhoods of Boston. The university has satellite campuses in Charlotte, North Carolina; Seattle, Washington; and San Jose, California
California
that exclusively offer graduate degrees
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University Of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge
Cambridge
(informally Cambridge
Cambridge
University)[note 1] is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge
Cambridge
is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university.[8] The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
after a dispute with the townspeople.[9] The two medieval universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as "Oxbridge"
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Meta-analysis
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. The basic tenet behind meta-analyses is that there is a common truth behind all conceptually similar scientific studies, but which has been measured with a certain error within individual studies. The aim then is to use approaches from statistics to derive a pooled estimate closest to the unknown common truth based on how this error is perceived. In essence, all existing methods yield a weighted average from the results of the individual studies and what differs is the manner in which these weights are allocated and also the manner in which the uncertainty is computed around the point estimate thus generated
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Statistical Significance
In statistical hypothesis testing,[1][2] a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.[3] More precisely, a study's defined significance level, α, is the probability of the study rejecting the null hypothesis, given that it were true;[4] and the p-value of a result, p, is the probability of obtaining a result at least as extreme, given that the null hypothesis were true
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Quasi-experiment
A quasi-experiment is an empirical study used to estimate the causal impact of an intervention on its target population without random assignment. Quasi-experimental research shares similarities with the traditional experimental design or randomized controlled trial, but it specifically lacks the element of random assignment to treatment or control. Instead, quasi-experimental designs typically allow the researcher to control the assignment to the treatment condition, but using some criterion other than random assignment (e.g., an eligibility cutoff mark).[1] In some cases, the researcher may have control over assignment to treatment. Quasi-experiments are subject to concerns regarding internal validity, because the treatment and control groups may not be comparable at baseline. With random assignment, study participants have the same chance of being assigned to the intervention group or the comparison group
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Endogeneity (econometrics)
In econometrics, an endogeneity problem occurs when an explanatory variable is correlated with the error term.[1] Endogeneity can arise as a result of measurement error, autoregression with autocorrelated errors, simultaneous causality (see Instrumental variable), omitted selection, and omitted variables [2]. Two common causes of endogeneity are: 1) an uncontrolled confounder causing both independent and dependent variables of a model; and 2) a loop of causality between the independent and dependent variables of a model. The problem of endogeneity is very serious and oftentimes ignored by researchers conducting non-experimental research[3][4]. For example, in a simple supply and demand model, when predicting the quantity demanded in equilibrium, the price is endogenous because producers change their price in response to demand and consumers change their demand in response to price
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New York City
Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island)Historic colonies New Netherland Province of New YorkSettled 1624Consolidated 1898Named for James, Duke of YorkGovernment[2] • Type Mayor–Council • Body New York City
New York City
Council • Mayor Bill de Blasio
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Randomized Controlled Trials
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial;[2] RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment. The people participating in the trial are randomly allocated to either the group receiving the treatment under investigation or to a group receiving standard treatment (or placebo treatment) as the control. Randomization minimises selection bias and the different comparison groups allow the researchers to determine any effects of the treatment when compared with the no treatment (control) group, while other variables are kept constant. The RCT is often considered the gold standard for a clinical trial. RCTs are often used to test the efficacy or effectiveness of various types of medical intervention and may provide information about adverse effects, such as drug reactions
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