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Surrealist Techniques
Surrealist Manifesto Surrealist cinema Surrealist music Surrealist
Surrealist
techniques Birmingham Surrealists Women Surrealists Surrealism
Surrealism
in art , poetry , and literature uses numerous TECHNIQUES AND GAMES to provide inspiration. Many of these are said to free imagination by producing a creative process free of conscious control. The importance of the unconscious as a source of inspiration is central to the nature of surrealism. The Surrealist
Surrealist
movement has been a fractious one since its inception. The value and role of the various techniques has been one of many subjects of disagreement. Some Surrealists consider automatism and games to be sources of inspiration only, while others consider them starting points for finished works
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Water
WATER is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms . Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds . Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure ; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice ) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor ). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers , ice packs and icebergs , clouds, fog , dew , aquifers , and atmospheric humidity . Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life
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Aleatoric
ALEATORICISM is the incorporation of chance into the process of creation, especially the creation of art or media. The word derives from the Latin word alea, the rolling of dice . "Aleatory" should not be confused with either improvisation or indeterminacy . CONTENTS * 1 Literature * 2 Art * 3 Music * 4 Film * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading LITERATURECharles Hartman discusses several methods of automatic generation of poetry in his book The Virtual Muse. ART See also: Automatic drawing , Surrealist automatism
Surrealist automatism
, Pareidolia , and Apophenia MUSIC Main article: Aleatoric music The term aleatory music was first coined by Werner Meyer-Eppler in 1955 to describe a course of sound events that is "determined in general but depends on chance in detail"
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Divination
DIVINATION (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine ) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic , standardized process or ritual. Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens , or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency. Divination
Divination
can be seen as a systematic method with which to organize what appear to be disjointed, random facets of existence such that they provide insight into a problem at hand. If a distinction is to be made between divination and fortune-telling , divination has a more formal or ritualistic element and often contains a more social character, usually in a religious context, as seen in traditional African medicine . Fortune-telling, on the other hand, is a more everyday practice for personal purposes
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Ceromancy
CEROMANCY is a form of divination where heated wax is used to tell fortunes. METHODTraditionally, the ritual uses a brass bowl. Water is added to the bowl and a candle is then lit. The melted wax is poured into the bowl and the resulting shapes are interpreted by the reader. Some practitioners also use the shape of the wax as it drips down the candle to tell the future. REFERENCES * ^ Cheung, Theresa (2006). The Element Encyclopedia of the Psychic World. Harper Element. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-00-721148-7
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White Chocolate
WHITE CHOCOLATE is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter , sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance. The melting point of cocoa butter, its primary cocoa bean component, is high enough to keep white chocolate solid at room temperature . CONTENTS * 1 Composition * 2 Regulations * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References COMPOSITION White chocolate
White chocolate
does not contain non-fat cocoa solids , the primary nutritional constituent of chocolate liquor —chocolate in its raw, unsweetened form. During the manufacturing process, the dark-colored solids of the cocoa bean are separated from its fatty content, as with milk , semi-sweet , and dark chocolate . But, unlike those other chocolate types, the cocoa solids are not recombined. As a result, this fat, cocoa butter, is the only cacao ingredient in white chocolate
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Chocolate
CHOCOLATE /ˈtʃɒklᵻt, -kəlᵻt/ ( listen ) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico and Guatemala
Guatemala
), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs , who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl Nahuatl
Nahuatl
pronunciation: , a Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor
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Guillaume Apollinaire
GUILLAUME may refer to: PEOPLE * Guillaume (given name) , the French equivalent of William * Guillaume (surname) This section lists people commonly referred to solely by this name. * William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
(c
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Metal
A METAL (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal" ) is a material (an element , compound , or alloy ) that is typically hard, opaque , shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity . Metals are generally malleable —that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible (able to be fused or melted) and ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire). About 91 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the others are nonmetals or metalloids . Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms. Astrophysicists use the term "metal" to collectively describe all elements other than hydrogen and helium , the simplest two, in a star. The star fuses smaller atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, to make larger ones over its lifetime. In that sense, the metallicity of an object is the proportion of its matter made up of all heavier chemical elements, not just traditional metals
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Wax
WAXES are a diverse class of organic compounds that are hydrophobic , malleable solids near ambient temperatures. They include higher alkanes and lipids , typically with melting points above about 40 °C (104 °F), melting to give low viscosity liquids. Waxes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic, nonpolar solvents. Natural waxes of different types are produced by plants and animals and occur in petroleum
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Cubomania
CUBOMANIA is a surrealist method of making collages in which a picture or image is cut into squares and the squares are then reassembled without regard for the original image, either automatically "or at random." The word can also mean the collage made using this method, a "rearrangement... suffic to create an entirely new work." The technique was invented by the Romanian surrealist Gherasim Luca . It has been described as a "statistical method". Robert Hirsch has seemed to imply that this process can be done with digital photography . Although seemingly a contradiction in terms, at least one cubomania has been made with triangular shapes, rather then rectangles. Penelope Rosemont and Joseph Jablonski have suggested that cubomania, with other surrealist methods, can "subvert the enslaving 'message' of advertising and to free images from repressive contexts." Using cubomania as a method for arranging soundscapes has been suggested
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Image
An IMAGE (from Latin : imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional PICTURE, that has a similar appearance to some subject —usually a physical object or a person , thus providing a depiction of it. CONTENTS* 1 Characteristics * 1.1 Still or moving * 2 Imagery (literary term) * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CHARACTERISTICSImages may be two-dimensional , such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram . They may be captured by optical devices – such as cameras , mirrors , lenses , telescopes , microscopes , etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water. The word 'image' is also used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map , a graph , a pie chart , or a painting
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Title
A TITLE is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts. It may signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted before a last name (for example, Graf
Graf
in German , Cardinal in Catholic usage or clerical titles such as Archbishop
Archbishop
). Some titles are hereditary
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Echo (phenomenon)
In audio signal processing and acoustics , ECHO is a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound. The delay is proportional to the distance of the reflecting surface from the source and the listener. Typical examples are the echo produced by the bottom of a well, by a building, or by the walls of an enclosed room and an empty room. A true echo is a single reflection of the sound source. The word echo derives from the Greek ἠχώ (ēchō), itself from ἦχος (ēchos), "sound". Echo in the folk story of Greek is a mountain nymph whose ability to speak was cursed, only able to repeat the last words anyone spoke to her. Some animals use echo for location sensing and navigation, such as cetaceans (dolphins and whales) and bats
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Echo (mythology)
In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
, ECHO (/ˈɛkoʊ/ ; Greek : Ἠχώ, Ēkhō, "echo ", from ἦχος (ēchos), "sound" ) was an Oread who resided on Mount Cithaeron . Zeus
Zeus
loved consorting with beautiful nymphs and often visited them on Earth. Eventually, Zeus's wife, Hera
Hera
, became suspicious, and came from Mt. Olympus in an attempt to catch Zeus
Zeus
with the nymphs. Echo, by trying to protect Zeus, endured Hera's wrath, and Hera
Hera
made her only able to speak the last few words spoken to her. So when Echo met Narcissus and fell in love with him, she was unable to tell him how she felt and was forced to watch him as he fell in love with himself
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Entoptic Phenomenon
ENTOPTIC PHENOMENA (from Greek ἐντός "within" and ὀπτικός "visual") are visual effects whose source is within the eye itself. (Occasionally, these are called ENTOPIC PHENOMENA, which is probably a typographical mistake.) In Helmholtz 's words; "Under suitable conditions light falling on the eye may render visible certain objects within the eye itself. These perceptions are called entoptical." CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 External links OVERVIEWEntoptic images have a physical basis in the image cast upon the retina. Hence, they are different from optical illusions , which are perceptual effects that arise from interpretations of the image by the brain . Because entoptic images are caused by phenomena within the observer's own eye, they share one feature with optical illusions and hallucinations: the observer cannot share a direct and specific view of the phenomenon with others
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