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Supranational Union
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The term is sometimes used to describe the European Union
European Union
(EU) as a new type of political entity.[1] It is the only entity that provides for international popular elections,[dubious – discuss] going beyond the level of political integration normally afforded by international treaties. The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose, undefined sense in other contexts such as a substitute for international, transnational or global. Another method of decision-making
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Separatism
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession,[1] separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[2] While some critics[who?] may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, most separatists[who?] argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online.[3] Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics, or political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice visited upon members of certain social groups
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Anocracy
Despite its popular usage, anocracy lacks a precise definition.[1] Anocratic regimes are loosely defined as part democracy and part dictatorship,[2][3] or as a "regime that mixes democratic with autocratic features".[3] Another definition classifies anocracy as "a regime that permits some means of participation through opposition group behavior but that has incomplete development of mechanisms to redress grievances".[1][4] Scholars have also distinguished anocracies from autocracies and democracies in their capability to maintain authority, political dynamics, and policy agendas.[5] Similarly, these regime types have democratic institutions that allow for nominal amounts of competition.[2] These regime types are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of armed conflict and unexpected or adverse changes in leadership.[6] The operational definition of anocracy is extensively used by scholars Monty G. Marshall and Benjamin R
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Geniocracy
Geniocracy
Geniocracy
is the framework for a system of government which was first proposed by Raël (leader of the International Raëlian Movement) in 1977 and which advocates problem-solving, creative intelligence and compassion as criteria for governance.[1]A series of articles on the Raëlian MovementFounder • History Beliefs & practices Cloning (Clonaid) FundsViews on: Politics Economics CosmologyThis box:view talk editContents1 Definition1.1 Justifying the method of selection2 History2.1 Origins in Ancient Greece3 Agenda3.1 Response to criticism 3.2 Status 3.3
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Noocracy
Noocracy (/noʊˈɒkrəsi/ or /ˈnoʊ.əkrəsi/), or "aristocracy of the wise", as defined by Plato, is a social and political system that is "based on the priority of human mind", according to Vladimir Vernadsky.[citation needed] It was also further developed in the writings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin.[citation needed]Contents1 Etymology 2 Development 3 Publications 4 Criticisms 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word itself is derived from Greek nous, Gen
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Kritarchy
Kritarchy, also called kritocracy, is a system of rule by judges (Hebrew: שופטים‬, shoftim) in the tribal confederacy of ancient Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges, following Joshua's conquest of Canaan
Canaan
and prior to the united monarchy under Saul.[1] Because it is a compound of the Greek words κριτής, krites ("judge") and ἄρχω, árkhō ("to rule"), its use has expanded to cover rule by judges in the modern sense as well, as in the case of Somalia, ruled by judges with the polycentric legal tradition of xeer,[2] and arguably the Islamic Courts Union[citation needed] and in the fictional regime of Mega-city One, the focus of setting for the Judge
Judge
Dredd franchise. References[edit]^ Dictionary.com ^ A Peaceful Ferment in Somalia: Publications: The Independent InstituteThis government-related article is a stub
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Particracy
Particracy (also 'partitocracy', 'partocracy', or 'partitocrazia') is a de facto form of government where one or more political parties dominate the political process, rather than citizens and/or individual politicians.[citation needed] As argued by Italian political scientist Mauro Calise in 1994, the term is often derogatory, implying that parties have too much power—in a similar vein, in premodern times it was often argued that democracy was merely rule by the demos, or a poorly educated and easily misled mob
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Ergatocracy
Ergatocracy (from the Greek word ἐργάτης, ergates, "worker" and the suffix -cracy, "government") is a type of government dominated by the labour and solidarities similar to communist beliefs. It refers to a society ruled by the working class. The term was coined by Eden and Cedar Paul in their book Creative Revolution: A Study of Communist Ergatocracy.[1][2] References[edit]^ Paul, Cedar; Paul, Eden (1920). Creative revolution:. new York: Thomas Seltzer. Retrieved 30 May 2015.  ^ https://bogdanovlibrary.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/2016-08-14-biggart-bogdanov-kultintern.pdf"ergatocracy." Dictionary.com's 21st Century Lexicon. Dictionary.com, LLC. 21 Jan. 2015. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ergatocracy>.This government-related article is a stub
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Netocracy
Netocracy was a term invented by the editorial board of the American technology magazine Wired in the early 1990s. A portmanteau of Internet
Internet
and aristocracy, netocracy refers to a perceived global upper-class that bases its power on a technological advantage and networking skills, in comparison to what is portrayed as a bourgeoisie of a gradually diminishing importance. The concept was later picked up and redefined by the Swedish philosophers Alexander Bard
Alexander Bard
and Jan Söderqvist
Jan Söderqvist
for their book Netocracy — The New Power Elite and Life After Capitalism (originally published in Swedish in 2000 as Nätokraterna - boken om det elektroniska klassamhället, published in English by Reuters/Pearsall UK in 2002). The netocracy concept has been compared with Richard Florida's concept of the creative class
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Autocracy
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).[1] Absolute monarchies (such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Brunei
Brunei
and Swaziland) and dictatorships (such as North Korea
North Korea
and Syria) are the main modern-day forms of autocracy. In earlier times, the term "autocrat" was coined as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests" as well as an indication of grandeur and power
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Despotism
Despotism
Despotism
(Greek: Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. Normally, that entity is an individual, the despot, as in an autocracy, but societies which limit respect and power to specific groups have also been called despotic.[1] Colloquially, the word despot applies pejoratively to those who abuse their power and authority to oppress their populace, subjects, or subordinates. More specifically, the term often applies to a head of state or government
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Dictatorship
Dictatorship
Dictatorship
is a system of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by a single party or individual (a dictator) or by a polity and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.[1][2] A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the West. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared
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Military Dictatorship
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule and the ways in which they leave power. Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as "neutral" arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles, such as "National Redemption Council", "Committee of National Restoration", or "National Liberation Committee"
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Anarchy
Anarchy
Anarchy
is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy.[1][2] Colloquially, it can also refer to a society experiencing widespread turmoil and collapse. The word originally meant leaderlessness, but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property? to refer to a new political philosophy: anarchism, which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations. In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government and institutions
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Meritocracy
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin
Latin
mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος kratos "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement.[1] Advancement in such a system is based on performance, as measured through examination or demonstrated achievement
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Theocracy
Theocracy
Theocracy
is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
has this definition:1. a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God
God
or a god. 1.1. the commonwealth of Israel
Israel
from the time of Moses
Moses
until the election of Saul as King.[2][3]An ecclesiocracy is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation: for example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages, where the bishop was also the temporal ruler. Such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two 'arms'—administrators and clergy—but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy
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