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Sundaland
Sundaland
Sundaland
(also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia
Asia
corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower
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Sunderland
Sunderland
Sunderland
(/ˈsʌndərlənd/ ( listen), locally /ˈsʊndlənd/) is a city at the centre of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 10 miles southeast of Newcastle upon Tyne, 12 miles northeast of Durham, 101 miles southeast of Edinburgh, 104 miles north-northeast of Manchester and 240 miles north of London
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Dipterocarpaceae
Anisoptera Cotylelobium Dipterocarpus Dryobalanops Hopea Marquesia Monotes Neobalanocarpus Parashorea Pseudomonotes Shorea Stemonoporus Upuna Vateria Vateriopsis Vatica Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpaceae
are a family of 16 genera and approximately 695 known species[2] of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees. The family name, from the type genus Dipterocarpus, is derived from Greek (di = two, pteron = wing and karpos = fruit) and refers to the two-winged fruit
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Pliocene
The Pliocene
Pliocene
( /ˈplaɪəˌsiːn/;[2][3] also Pleiocene[4]) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58[5] million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene
Neogene
Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Pliocene
Pliocene
follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations entirely within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene
Pliocene
also included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene.[6] As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain
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Tropics
The tropics are a region of the Earth
Earth
surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
at 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone (see geographical zone)
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Equator
An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere (such as a planet) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles. On Earth, the Equator
Equator
is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles, dividing the Earth
Earth
into Northern and Southern Hemispheres
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Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
(ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere. Evaporation
Evaporation
accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration
Transpiration
accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
is an important part of the water cycle. An element (such as a tree) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an evapotranspirator.[1] Potential evapotranspiration (PET), is a representation of the environmental demand for evapotranspiration and represents the evapotranspiration rate of a short green crop (grass), completely shading the ground, of uniform height and with adequate water status in the soil profile
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Monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon
(/mɒnˈsuːn/) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation,[1] but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.[2][3] Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains,[4] although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.[5] The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West
West
African and Asia-Australian monsoons
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Western Pacific Warm Pool
The Tropical Warm Pool (TWP) or Indo-Pacific Warm Pool is a mass of ocean water located in the western Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and eastern Indian Ocean which consistently exhibits the highest water temperatures over the largest expanse of the Earth's surface.[1] Its intensity and extent appear to oscillate over a time period measured in decades.[2] See also[edit]Maritime ContinentReferences[edit]^ USGS News Release Jan
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Hadley Cell
The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global scale tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the equator, flowing poleward at 10–15 kilometers above the surface, descending in the subtropics, and then returning equatorward near the surface. This circulation creates the trade winds, tropical rain-belts and hurricanes, subtropical deserts and the jet streams. In each hemisphere, there is one primary circulation cell known as a Hadley cell
Hadley cell
and two secondary circulation cells at higher latitudes, between 30° and 60° latitude known as the Ferrel cell, and beyond 60° as the Polar cell
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El Niño–Southern Oscillation
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña. Southern Oscillation is the accompanying atmospheric component, coupled with the sea temperature change: El Niño
El Niño
is accompanied with high, and La Niña
La Niña
with low air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific.[1][2] The two periods last several months each (typically occurring every few years) and their effects vary in intensity.[3] The two phases relate to the Walker circulation, discovered by Gilbert Walker during the early twentieth century
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Mast (botany)
Mast is the "fruit of forest trees like acorns and other nuts".[1] It can also refer to "a heap of nuts".[1] The term "mast" comes from the old English word "mæst", meaning the nuts of forest trees that have accumulated on the ground, especially those used as food for fattening domestic pigs.[2]. In the aseasonal tropics of South-East Asia, entire forests including hundreds of species are known to mast fruit at irregular periods of 2-12 years [3] [4]. More generally, mast is considered the edible vegetative or reproductive part produced by woody species of plants, i.e. trees and shrubs, that wildlife species and some domestic animals consume
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Australasia Ecozone
The Australasian realm
Australasian realm
is an biogeographic realm that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographical region of Australasia. The realm includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, and Timor, often known as the Lesser Sundas. The Australasian realm
Australasian realm
also includes several Pacific island groups, including the Bismarck Archipelago, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and New Caledonia. New Zealand and its surrounding islands are a distinctive sub-region of the Australasian realm
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Fagaceae
See text.The range of Fagaceae.SynonymsCastaneaceae Brenner Quercaceae Martinov Fagaceae
Fagaceae
is a family of flowering plants that includes beeches and oaks, and comprises eight genera with about 927 species.[2] The Fagaceae
Fagaceae
are deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs, characterized by alternate simple leaves with pinnate venation, unisexual flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of cup-like (cupule) nuts. Their leaves are often lobed and both petioles and stipules are generally present. Leaf characteristics of Fagaceae
Fagaceae
can be very similar to those of Rosaceae
Rosaceae
and other rose motif families. Their fruits lack endosperm and lie in a scaly or spiny husk that may or may not enclose the entire nut, which may consist of one to seven seeds. In the oaks, genus Quercus, the fruit is a non-valved nut (usually containing one seed) called an acorn
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Floristic Province
A phytochorion, in phytogeography, is a geographic area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species. Adjacent phytochoria do not usually have a sharp boundary, but rather a soft one, a transitional area in which many species from both regions overlap. The region of overlap is called a vegetation tension zone. In traditional schemes, areas in phytogeography are classified hierarchically, according to the presence of endemic families, genera or species, e.g., in floral (or floristic, phytogeographic) zones and regions,[1] or also in kingdoms, regions and provinces,[2] sometimes including the categories empire and domain. However, some authors prefer not to rank areas, referring to them simply as "areas", "regions" (in a non hierarchical sense) or "phytochoria".[3] Systems used to classify vegetation can be divided in two major groups: those that use physiognomic-environmental parameters and characteristics and those that are based on floristic (i.e
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Elephants
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae
Elephantidae
and the order Proboscidea. Three species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant ( Loxodonta
Loxodonta
africana), the African forest elephant
African forest elephant
(L. cyclotis), and the Asian elephant
Asian elephant
( Elephas
Elephas
maximus). Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia
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