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Sultanate Of Rum
The SULTANATE OF RûM (also known as RûM SULTANATE Persian : سلجوقیان روم‎, Saljuqiyān-e Rum; ANATOLIAN SELJUK SULTANATE, SULTANATE OF ICONIUM, ANATOLIAN SELJUK STATE Turkish : Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti or TURKEY SELJUK STATE Turkish : Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state, established in the parts of Anatolia
Anatolia
which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by the Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
which was established by Seljuk Turks . The name Rûm reflects the Arabic
Arabic
name of Anatolia, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, a loan from Greek Ρωμιοί "Romans "
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Central Asia
CENTRAL ASIA stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix " -stan ", meaning "land of". Central Asia
Asia
is sometimes referred to as Turkestan
Turkestan
. Central Asia
Asia
has a population of about 70 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop
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Caravanserai
A CARAVANSERAI (/kærəˈvænsəri/ ; was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners ) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa
North Africa
, and Southeast Europe
Southeast Europe
, especially along the Silk Road
Silk Road

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Republic Of Genoa
The REPUBLIC OF GENOA (Ligurian : Repúbrica de Zêna /re\'pybrika \'de \'ze:na/ , Latin
Latin
: Res Publica Ianuensis, Italian : Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria
Liguria
on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica
Corsica
from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. It began when Genoa
Genoa
became a self-governing commune within the Regnum Italicum , and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic
Republic
under Napoleon
Napoleon
and replaced with the Ligurian Republic . Corsica
Corsica
was ceded to France
France
in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world 's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area . Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1 , which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "Notes" column for each country for clarification
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Lake Van
LAKE VAN (Turkish : Van Gölü, Armenian : Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Kurdish : Gola Wanê‎), the largest lake in Turkey
Turkey
, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis . It is a saline soda lake , receiving water from numerous small streams that descend from the surrounding mountains. Lake Van
Lake Van
is one of the world's largest endorheic lakes (having no outlet) – a volcanic eruption blocked the original outlet from the basin in ancient times. Although Lake Van
Lake Van
has an altitude of 1,640 m (5,380 ft) in a region with harsh winters, its high salinity prevents most of it from freezing, and even the shallow northern section freezes only rarely
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Sinop, Turkey
SINOP (Greek : Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as SINOPE /sᵻˈnoʊpi/ ) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia
Paphlagonia
, in modern-day northern Turkey
Turkey
. The city serves as the capital of Sinop Province . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Climate * 3 Economy * 4 Cultural and other attractions * 5 Notable people * 6 Miscellaneous * 7 Sister cities * 8 See also * 9 Gallery * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORYLong used as a Hittite port, which appears in Hittite sources as "Sinuwa", the city proper was re-founded as a Greek colony from the city of Miletus
Miletus
in the 7th century BC
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Rûm
RûM (Arabic pronunciation: ), also transliterated as Roum or Rhum (in Koine
Koine
Greek "Ρωμιοί" - Romioi, "Romans", in Arabic الرُّومُ ar -Rūm, Persian /Turkish روم Rûm), is a generic term used at different times in the Muslim world
Muslim world

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Koine Greek
KOINE GREEK (UK English /ˈkɔɪniː/ , US English /kɔɪˈneɪ/ , /ˈkɔɪneɪ/ or /kiːˈniː/ ; from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος, "the common dialect"), also known as ALEXANDRIAN DIALECT, COMMON ATTIC, HELLENISTIC or BIBLICAL GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: Ελληνιστική Κοινή, "Hellenistic Koiné", in the sense of "Hellenistic supraregional language "), was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity and the early Byzantine era, or Late Antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties
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Battle Of Manzikert
KILLED: 2,000 to 8,000 * nearly the entire Varangian Guard (Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon mercenaries) * 2,000 Turkish mercenaries who remained loyalCAPTURED: 4,000 DESERTED: 20,000 to 35,000 * mainly Frankish and Norman mercenaries who avoided almost the entire battle unknown * v * t * e Byzantine–Seljuq wars * Kapetron * 1st Manzikert * Caesarea * Iconium
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Antalya
ANTALYA (Turkish pronunciation: ) is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey
Turkey
and the capital of its eponymous province . Located on Anatolia 's flourishing southwest coast bordered by the Taurus Mountains , Antalya
Antalya
is the largest Turkish city on the Mediterranean coast with over one million people in its metropolitan area. The city that is now Antalya
Antalya
was first settled around 200 BC by the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon, which was soon subdued by the Romans. Roman rule saw Antalya
Antalya
thrive, including the construction of several new monuments, such as Hadrian\'s Gate , and the proliferation of neighboring cities. The city has changed hands several times, including to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1207 and an expanding Ottoman Empire in 1391
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Byzantine Empire Under The Doukas Dynasty
The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was ruled by emperors of the Doukas
Doukas
dynasty between 1059 and 1081. There are six emperors and co-emperors of this period: the dynasty's founder, Emperor Constantine X Doukas (r. 1059–1067), his brother John Doukas
Doukas
, katepano and later Caesar , Romanos IV Diogenes
Romanos IV Diogenes
(r. 1068–1071), Constantine's son Michael VII Doukas
Doukas
(r. 1071–1078), Michael's son and co-emperor Constantine Doukas
Doukas
, and finally Nikephoros III Botaneiates
Nikephoros III Botaneiates
(r. 7 January 1078 – 1 April 1081), who claimed descent from the Phokas family
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Ottoman Dynasty
The OTTOMAN DYNASTY was made up of the members of the imperial HOUSE OF OSMAN (Ottoman Turkish : خاندان آل عثمان‎, Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān; Turkish : Osmanlı Hanedanı). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks , under Osman I
Osman I
in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the district of Bilecik
Bilecik
Söğüt . The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from c. 1299 to 1922
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar
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Sivas
SIVAS ( Latin
Latin
and Greek : Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή; Armenian : Սեբաստիա) is a city in central Turkey
Turkey
and the seat of Sivas Province
Sivas Province
. According to a 2011 estimate, its urban population is 425,297. The city, which lies at an elevation of 1,278 metres (4,193 ft) in the broad valley of the Kızılırmak river, is a moderately-sized trade center and industrial city, although the economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Rail repair shops and a thriving manufacturing industry of rugs, bricks, cement, and cotton and woolen textiles form the mainstays of the city's economy. The surrounding region is a cereal-producing area with large deposits of iron ore which are worked at Divriği
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