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Sulphur Mountain Formation
The Sulphur Mountain Formation
Sulphur Mountain Formation
is a geologic formation of Early to Middle Triassic
Triassic
age. It is present on the western edge of the Western Canada
Canada
Sedimentary Basin in the foothills and Rocky Mountains of western Alberta
Alberta
and northeastern British Columbia. It includes marine fossils from the time shortly after the Permian- Triassic
Triassic
extinction event.[4][5] The Sulphur Mountain Formation
Sulphur Mountain Formation
was first described as a member of the Spray River Formation
Spray River Formation
by P.S. Warren in 1945,[3] who named it for Sulphur Mountain in Banff National Park
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Geochronology
Geochronology
Geochronology
is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved. Geochronology
Geochronology
is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy
does not directly provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an interval of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted
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Continental Shelf
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods. The shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf. The continental margin, between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment
Sediment
from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise
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Early Triassic
The Early Triassic
Triassic
is the first of three epochs of the Triassic
Triassic
Period of the geologic timescale. It spans the time between 251.902 Ma and 247.2 Ma (million years ago). Rocks from this epoch are collectively known as the Lower Triassic, which is a unit in chronostratigraphy. The Early Triassic
Triassic
is the oldest epoch of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era and is divided into the Induan
Induan
and Olenekian
Olenekian
ages. The Lower Triassic
Triassic
series is coeval with the Scythian stage, which is today not included in the official timescales but can be found in older literature
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Middle Triassic
The Triassic
Triassic
( /traɪˈæsɪk/) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 201.3 Mya.[8] The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events.[9] The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event, which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time
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Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin
The Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is a vast sedimentary basin underlying 1,400,000 square kilometres (540,000 sq mi) of Western Canada including southwestern Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan, Alberta, northeastern British Columbia and the southwest corner of the Northwest Territories. It consists of a massive wedge of sedimentary rock extending from the Rocky Mountains in the west to the Canadian Shield in the east. This wedge is about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) thick under the Rocky Mountains, but thins to zero at its eastern margins. The WCSB contains one of the world's largest reserves of petroleum and natural gas and supplies much of the North American market, producing more than 16,000,000,000 cubic feet (450,000,000 m3) per day of gas in 2000. It also has huge reserves of coal
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Canadian Rockies
The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
(French: Rocheuses canadiennes) comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, which is a system of multiple ranges of mountains which runs from the Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
to the Pacific Coast. The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
mountain system comprises the southeastern part of this system, lying between the Interior Plains
Interior Plains
of Alberta
Alberta
and Northeastern British Columbia
British Columbia
on the east to the Rocky Mountain Trench of BC on the west. The southern end borders Idaho
Idaho
and Montana
Montana
of the USA
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Fossil
A fossil (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging")[1] is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA
DNA
remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology
Paleontology
is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old.[2] The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old[3][4][5] to 4.1 billion years old.[6][7] The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils
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Permian-Triassic Extinction Event
The Permian– Triassic
Triassic
(P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying,[2] the End- Permian
Permian
Extinction or the Great Permian
Permian
Extinction,[3][4] occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago,[5] forming the boundary between the Permian
Permian
and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and Mesozoic
Mesozoic
eras. It is the Earth's most severe known extinction event, with up to 96% of all marine species[6][7] and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate species becoming extinct.[8] It is the only known mass extinction of insects.[9][10] Some 57% of all families and 83% of all genera became extinct
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Stratigraphic Unit
A stratigraphic unit is a volume of rock of identifiable origin and relative age range that is defined by the distinctive and dominant, easily mapped and recognizable petrographic, lithologic or paleontologic features (facies) that characterize it. Units must be mappable and distinct from one another, but the contact need not be particularly distinct. For instance, a unit may be defined by terms such as "when the sandstone component exceeds 75%".Contents1 Lithostratigraphic units1.1 Bed 1.2 Member 1.3 Formation 1.4 Group 1.5 Supergroup2 Biostratigraphic units 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLithostratigraphic units[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata of the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrate the principles of stratigraphy
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Banff National Park
Banff National Park
Banff National Park
(/bænf/)[2] is Canada's oldest national park and was established in 1885. Located in the Rocky Mountains, 110–180 kilometres (68–112 mi) west of Calgary
Calgary
in the province of Alberta, Banff encompasses 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi)[3] of mountainous terrain, with numerous glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes. The Icefields Parkway
Icefields Parkway
extends from Lake Louise, connecting to Jasper National Park
Jasper National Park
in the north. Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country
Kananaskis Country
to the southeast
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Stratotype
A stratotype or type section is a geological term that names the physical location or outcrop of a particular reference exposure of a stratigraphic sequence or stratigraphic boundary. If the stratigraphic unit is layered, it is called a stratotype, whereas the standard of reference for unlayered rocks is the type locality.[1] See also[edit]Global Boundary Stratotype Section and PointReferences[edit]^ "Stratotypes and Type Localities". International Commission on Stratigraphy
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Spray River
The Spray River is a tributary of the Bow River in western Alberta, Canada. The Spray River originates in the southern area of Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies and flows through the Spray Valley Provincial Park and alongside the western border of the Bow Valley Wildland Provincial Park.[1] The Spray Lakes Reservoir and the Goat Pond are formed along this section of the river, and the scenic Smith Dorrien Trail (part of the Kananaskis Trail system) runs along. The river then flows back into Banff National Park and north-west to Banff, where it merges into the Bow River. The lower part of the river below the Goat Pond is marked as Goat Creek on topographic maps.[1][2] The total length of the river is 64 km.The Spray River just below Spray Lakes Reservoir.See also[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spray River.List of rivers of AlbertaReferences[edit]^ a b Canmore and Kananaskis Village Map and Trail Guide, 1:50000 (6th ed.). Gem Trek Publishing
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North American Craton
Laurentia
Laurentia
or the North American Craton
Craton
is a large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent
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Sulphur Mountain (Alberta)
Scramble Gondola lift/Hike for Sanson's Peak (2,256 m or 7,402 ft)Sulphur Mountain
Mountain
is a mountain in Banff National Park
Banff National Park
in the Canadian Rocky Mountains overlooking the town of Banff, Alberta, Canada. The mountain was named in 1916 for the hot springs on its lower slopes.[1] George Dawson had referred to this landform as Terrace Mountain
Mountain
on his 1886 map of the area. Sanson's Peak was named in 1948 for Norman Bethune Sanson who diligently attended the observatory recording equipment atop Sulphur Mountain
Mountain
for nearly 30 years.[3]Contents1 Recreation 2 Scientific importance 3 References 4 External linksRecreation[edit]Banff and Tunnel Mountain
Mountain
seen from Sulphur Mountain
Mountain
(Sanson's Peak)This image is a view from along the boardwalk on the top of Sulphur Mountain
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Supercontinent
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.[2][3] However, the definition of a supercontinent can be ambiguous. Many earth scientists use the term supercontinent to mean "a clustering of nearly all continents".[1] This definition leaves room for interpretation when labeling a continental body and is easier to apply to Precambrian
Precambrian
times.[4] Using the first definition provided here, Gondwana
Gondwana
is not considered a supercontinent, because the landmasses of Baltica, Laurentia
Laurentia
and Siberia also existed at the same time but physically separate from each other.[4] The landmass of Pangaea
Pangaea
is the collective name describing all of these continental masses when they were most recently near to one another. This would classify Pangaea
Pangaea
as a supercontinent
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