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Sukhumi
Sukhumi
Sukhumi
or Sokhumi[3] (Abkhazian: Аҟәа, Aqwa; Georgian: სოხუმი, [sɔxumi] ( listen); Russian: Сухум(и), Sukhum(i)) is a city on the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast. It is the capital of the breakaway Republic of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
which has controlled it since the 1992-93 war in Abkhazia, although most of the international community considers it legally part of Georgia. Sukhumi's history can be traced back to the 6th century BC, when it was settled by Greeks, who named it Dioscurias. During this time and the subsequent Roman period, much of the city disappeared under the Black Sea. The city was named Tskhumi when it became part of the Kingdom of Abkhazia. Contested by local princes, it became part of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the 1570s, where it remained until it was conquered by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1810
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Abkhaz Language
Cyrillic
Cyrillic
(Abkhaz alphabet) Historically: Latin, GeorgianOfficial statusOfficial language inRepublic of Abkhazia;[a] Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, GeorgiaLanguage codesISO 639-1 ab AbkhazianISO 639-2 abk AbkhazianISO 639-3 abk AbkhazianGlottolog abkh1244  Abkhazian[2]Abkhaz (/æbˈkɑːz/;[3] /æpˈhɑːz/;[4] sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа /apʰswa bɨzʃʷa/), also known as Abkhazian,[2][5][6] is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza. It is spoken mostly by the Abkhaz people. It is one of the official languages of Abkhazia[a], where around 100,000 people speak it.[1] Furthermore, it is spoken by thousands of members of the Abkhazian diaspora in Turkey, Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara, Syria, Jordan
Jordan
and several Western countries
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus
Cyprus
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records.[3] Its writing system has been the
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Georgian Language
Georgian (ქართული ენა, kartuli ena, pronounced [kʰɑrtʰuli ɛnɑ]) is a Kartvelian language
Kartvelian language
spoken by Georgians
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MSN Encarta
Microsoft
Microsoft
Encarta
Encarta
was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation from 1993 to 2009. Originally available for sale on 2 to 4 CD-ROMs or a DVD, it was also later available on the World Wide Web via an annual subscription – although later many articles could also be viewed free online with advertisements.[1] By 2008, the complete English version, Encarta
Encarta
Premium, consisted of more than 62,000 articles,[2] numerous photos and illustrations, music clips, videos, interactive content, timelines, maps, atlases and homework tools. Microsoft
Microsoft
published similar encyclopedias under the Encarta
Encarta
trademark in various languages, including German, French, Spanish, Dutch, Italian, Portuguese and Japanese
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Esri
Esri
Esri
(/ˈɛzriː/, a.k.a. Environmental Systems Research Institute) is an international supplier of geographic information system (GIS) software, web GIS and geodatabase management applications. The company is headquartered in Redlands, California. The company was founded as Environmental Systems Research Institute in 1969 as a land-use consulting firm. Esri
Esri
products (particularly ArcGIS Desktop) have 40.7% of the global market share.[3] In 2014, Esri
Esri
had approximately a 43 percent share of the GIS software market worldwide, more than any other vendor.[4] The company has 10 regional offices in the U.S. and a network of 80+ international distributors,[5] with about a million users in 200 countries. The firm has 3,200 employees in the U.S., and is privately held by its founders
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Google Maps
Google
Google
Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google. It offers satellite imagery, street maps, 360° panoramic views of streets (Street View), real-time traffic conditions ( Google
Google
Traffic), and route planning for traveling by foot, car, bicycle (in beta), or public transportation. Google
Google
Maps began as a C++
C++
desktop program at Where 2 Technologies. In October 2004, the company was acquired by Google, which converted it into a web application. After additional acquisitions of a geospatial data visualization company and a realtime traffic analyzer, Google Maps was launched in February 2005.[1] The service's front end utilizes JavaScript, XML, and Ajax
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Pileus (hat)
The pileus (Greek: πῖλος – pilos, also pilleus or pilleum in Latin) was a brimless, felt cap worn in Ancient Greece[1] and surrounding regions, later also introduced in Ancient Rome. The Greek πιλίδιον (pilidion) and Latin
Latin
pilleolus were smaller versions, similar to a skullcap. The pileus (plis in Albanian), is very common in Albania and Kosovo even today.Contents1 History1.1 Greece 1.2 Rome2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References4.1 Citations 4.2 Sources5 Further reading 6 External linksHistory[edit] Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
terracotta statuette of a peasant wearing a pilos, 1st century BCGreece[edit] The pilos (Greek: πῖλος, felt[2]) was a common conical travelling hat in Illyria
Illyria
and Ancient Greece. The pilos is the brimless version of the petasos
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Thyrsos
A thyrsus /ˈθɜːrsəs/ or thyrsos /ˈθɜːrˌsɒs/ (Ancient Greek: θύρσος) was a wand or staff of giant fennel (Ferula communis) covered with ivy vines and leaves, sometimes wound with taeniae and always topped with a pine cone.Contents1 Symbolism 2 Use 3 Literature 4 Gallery 5 Notes 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksSymbolism[edit] The thyrsus, associated with Dionysus
Dionysus
(or Bacchus) and his followers, the Satyrs
Satyrs
and Maenads, is a symbol of prosperity, fertility, hedonism, and pleasure/enjoyment in general.[1] It has been suggested that this was specifically a fertility phallus, with the fennel representing the shaft of the penis and the pine cone representing the "seed" issuing forth
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Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii
Sergey Mikhaylovich Prokudin-Gorsky (Russian: Серге́й Миха́йлович Проку́дин-Го́рский,  listen (help·info); August 30 [O.S. August 18] 1863 – September 27, 1944) was a Russian chemist and photographer. He is best known for his pioneering work in color photography of early 20th-century Russia.[1]Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Marriage and career in photography 1.3 Later life and death2 Photography
Photography
technique2.1 Three-color principle 2.2 Early practitioners 2.3 Equipment 2.4 Exposures 2.5 Other processes3 Documentary of the Russian Empire 4 Digital color rendering 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Prokudin-Gorsky was born in the ancestral estate of Funikova Gora, in what is now Kirzhachsky District, Vladimir Oblast
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Miletus
Miletus
Miletus
(/maɪˈliːtəs/; Ancient Greek: Μίλητος, translit. Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Latin: Miletus; Turkish: Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander
Maeander
River in ancient Caria.[3][4][5] Its ruins are located near the modern village of Balat in Aydın
Aydın
Province, Turkey
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Dioscuri
Castor[a] and Pollux[b] (or in Greek, Polydeuces[c]) were twin brothers and demigods in Greek and Roman mythology, known together as the Dioscuri.[d] Their mother was Leda, but they had different fathers; Castor was the mortal son of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta, while Pollux was the divine son of Zeus, who seduced Leda in the guise of a swan. Though accounts of their birth are varied, they are sometimes said to have been born from an egg, along with their twin sisters or half-sisters Helen of Troy
Helen of Troy
and Clytemnestra. In Latin the twins are also known as the Gemini[e] (literally "twins") or Castores,[f] as well as the Tyndaridae[g] or Tyndarids.[h] When Castor was killed, Pollux asked Zeus
Zeus
to let him share his own immortality with his twin to keep them together, and they were transformed into the constellation Gemini. The pair were regarded as the patrons of sailors, to whom they appeared as St
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Svan Language
The Svan language
Svan language
(Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; Georgian: სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti
Svaneti
primarily by the Svan people.[4][5] With its speakers variously estimated to be between 30,000 and 80,000, the UNESCO
UNESCO
designates Svan as a "definitely endangered language".[6] It is of particular interest because it has retained many archaic features that have been lost in the other Kartvelian languages.Contents1 Features1.1 Familial features 1.2 Distinguishing features2 Distribution 3 History 4 Dialects 5 Phonology5.1 Consonants 5.2 Vowels 5.3 Alphabet6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 General references7 External linksFeatures[edit] Familial features[edit] Like all languages of the Kartvelian family, Svan has a large number of consonants
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Classical Mythology
Classical mythology, Greek and Roman mythology
Roman mythology
or Greco-Roman mythology is both the body of and the study of myths from the ancient Greeks and Romans as they are used or transformed by cultural reception. Along with philosophy and political thought, mythology represents one of the major survivals of classical antiquity throughout later Western culture.[1] The Greek word mythos refers to the spoken word or speech, but it also denotes a tale, story or narrative.[2] Classical mythology
Classical mythology
has provided subject matter for all forms of visual, musical, and literary art in the West, including poetry, drama, painting, sculpture, opera, and ballet, as well as forms of popular culture such as Hollywood movies, television series, comic books, and video games
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Caucasus
 Abkhazia Artsakh South OssetiaAutonomous republics and federal regions Russia Adygea  Chechnya  Dagestan  Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai North Ossetia-Alania  Stavropol Krai Georgia Adjara Abkhazia (since 2008, in exile) Azerbaijan NakhchivanDemonym CaucasianTime Zones UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+4:00, UTC+04:30The Caucasus
Caucasus
/ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region loc
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Linen
Linen
Linen
/ˈlɪnən/ is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen
Linen
is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather. The word linen is of West Germanic origin and cognate to the Latin name for the flax plant, linum, and the earlier Greek λινόν (linón)
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