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Suda
The Suda
Suda
or Souda
Souda
(Medieval Greek: Σοῦδα, translit. Soûda; Latin: Suidae Lexicon[1]) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας). It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers
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Thucydides
Thucydides
Thucydides
(/θjuːˈsɪdɪdiːz/; Ancient Greek: Θουκυδίδης, Thoukydídēs, [tʰuːkydídɛːs]; c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was an Athenian
Athenian
historian and general. His History of the Peloponnesian War
History of the Peloponnesian War
recounts the fifth-century BC war between Sparta
Sparta
and Athens
Athens
until the year 411 BC
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John I Tzimiskes
John I Tzimiskes (Greek: Ἰωάννης Α΄ Τζιμισκής, Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Eastern Roman Emperor
Eastern Roman Emperor
from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976. An intuitive and successful general, he strengthened the Empire and expanded its borders during his short reign.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Rise to the throne 3 Reign 4 Miscellaneous 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External linksBackground[edit]The Bamberger Gunthertuch, a Byzantine silk tapestry depicting the return of John Tzimiskes from a successful campaign. John I Tzimiskes
John I Tzimiskes
was born into the Kourkouas clan, a family of Armenian origin.[2] Scholars have speculated that his nickname "Tzimiskes" was derived either from the Armenian Chmushkik (Չմշկիկ), meaning "red boot", or from an Armenian word for "short stature"
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Adam (Bible)
Adam
Adam
(Hebrew: אָדָם‬, Modern ʼAdam, Tiberian ʼĀḏām; Arabic: آدَم‎, translit. ʾĀdam; Greek: Αδάμ, translit. Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis
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Constantine VIII
Constantine VIII (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028. He was the son of the Emperor Romanos II and Theophano and the younger brother of the eminent Basil II, who died childless and thus left the rule of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in his hands. He had been nominal co-Emperor for the preceding 63 years. Constantine was an incompetent hedonist with no interest in politics, statecraft or the military
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Scholia
Scholia (singular scholium or scholion, from Ancient Greek: σχόλιον, "comment, interpretation") are grammatical, critical, or explanatory comments, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which are inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author, as glosses. One who writes scholia is a scholiast. The earliest attested use of the word dates to the 1st century BC.[1]Contents1 History 2 Important sets of scholia 3 List of ancient commentaries 4 Other uses 5 References5.1 Bibliography6 External linksHistory[edit] Ancient scholia are important sources of information about many aspects of the ancient world, especially ancient literary history. The earliest scholia, usually anonymous, date to the 5th or 4th century BC (such as the "a" scholia on the Iliad)
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Homer
Homer
Homer
(/ˈhoʊmər/; Ancient Greek: Ὅμηρος Greek pronunciation: [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is the legendary author of the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad
Iliad
is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy
Troy
by a coalition of Greek kingdoms. It focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and the warrior Achilles
Achilles
lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey
Odyssey
focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia
Anatolia
in present-day Turkey
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Aristophanes
Aristophanes
Aristophanes
(/ˌærɪˈstɒfəniːz/ or /ˌɛrɪˈstɒfəniːz/;[2] Greek: Ἀριστοφάνης, pronounced [aristopʰánɛːs]; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Latin: Cydathenaeum),[3] was a comic playwright of ancient Athens. Eleven of his forty plays survive virtually complete
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Basil II
Basil II (Greek: Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025. He was known in his time as Basil the Porphyrogenitus
Porphyrogenitus
and Basil the Young to distinguish him from his supposed ancestor, Basil I the Macedonian. He was the second longest reigning emperor after his brother Constantine VIII
Constantine VIII
whom he named co-emperor in 962, but outlived him by 3 years. The early years of his long reign were dominated by civil war against powerful generals from the Anatolian aristocracy. Following their submission, Basil oversaw the stabilization and expansion of the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire, and above all, the final and complete subjugation of Bulgaria, the Empire's foremost European foe, after a prolonged struggle
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Polybius
Polybius
Polybius
(/pəˈlɪbiəs/; Greek: Πολύβιος, Polýbios; c. 200 – c. 118 BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
noted for his work The Histories, which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail
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George Hamartolus
George Hamartolos
George Hamartolos
or Hamartolus (Greek: Γεώργιος Ἁμαρτωλός) was a monk at Constantinople
Constantinople
under Michael III (842–867) and the author of a chronicle of some importance. Hamartolus is not his name but the epithet he gives to himself in the title of his work: "A compendious chronicle from various chroniclers and interpreters, gathered together and arranged by George, a sinner (ὐπὸ Γεωργίου ἁμαρτωλοῦ)". It is a common form among Byzantine monks. Krumbacher
Krumbacher
(Byz
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Josephus
Titus
Titus
Flavius Josephus
Josephus
(/dʒoʊˈsiːfəs/;[1] Greek: Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – c. 100),[2][page needed] born Yosef ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף הכהן בן מתתיהו‬, Yosef ben Matityahu; Greek: Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς),[3][4] was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian
Vespasian
after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus
Josephus
claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian
Vespasian
becoming Emperor of Rome
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Chronicon Paschale
Chronicon Paschale (the Paschal Chronicle), also called Chronicum Alexandrinum, Constantinopolitanum or Fasti Siculi, is the conventional name of a 7th-century Greek Christian
Christian
chronicle of the world. Its name comes from its system of chronology based on the Christian
Christian
paschal cycle; its Greek author named it Epitome of the ages from Adam the first man to the 20th year of the reign of the most August Heraclius.Contents1 Structure 2 Authorship 3 Editions 4 Partial English translation 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksStructure[edit] The Chronicon Paschale follows earlier chronicles
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George Syncellus
George Synkellos or Syncellus (Greek: Γεώργιος Σύγκελλος; died after 810) was a Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic. He had lived many years in Palestine (probably in the Old Lavra of Saint Chariton or Souka, near Tekoa) as a monk, before coming to Constantinople, where he was appointed synkellos (literally, "cell-mate") to Tarasius, patriarch of Constantinople. He later retired to a monastery to write what was intended to be his great work, a chronicle of world history, Ekloge chronographias (Ἐκλογὴ Χρονογραφίας), or Extract of Chronography. According to Anastasius Bibliothecarius, George "struggled valiantly against heresy [i.e. Iconoclasm] and received many punishments from the rulers who raged against the rites of the Church", although the accuracy of the claim is suspect.[1] As a synkellos, George stood high in the ecclesiastical establishment of Constantinople
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Digraph (orthography)
A digraph or digram (from the Greek: δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined. Digraphs are often used for phonemes that cannot be represented using a single character, like the English sh in ship and fish. In other cases, they may be relics from an earlier period of the language when they had a different pronunciation, or represent a distinction which is made only in certain dialects, like English wh. They may also be used for purely etymological reasons, like rh in English. Digraphs are used in some Romanization
Romanization
schemes, like the zh often used to represent the Russian letter ж
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Diphthong
A diphthong (/ˈdɪfθɒŋ/ DIF-thong or /ˈdɪpθɒŋ/ DIP-thong;[1] from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: that is, the tongue (and/or other parts of the speech apparatus) moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In many dialects of English, the phrase no highway cowboys /ˌnoʊ ˈhaɪweɪ ˈkaʊbɔɪz/ has five distinct diphthongs, one in every syllable. Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs, where the tongue or other speech organs do not move and the syllable contains only a single vowel sound. For instance, in English, the word ah is spoken as a monophthong (/ɑː/), while the word ow is spoken as a diphthong in most dialects (/aʊ/)
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