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Sud Aviation Caravelle
The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was a French short/medium-range jet airliner. It holds the distinction of being the world's first jet-powered airliner to be developed for the short/medium-range market. Development of the Caravelle began during the early 1950s under the French aircraft company SNCASE, who were keen to produce a passenger aircraft that utilised newly developed jet propulsion technology. In order to achieve this, SNCASE
SNCASE
formed partnerships with British companies such as de Havilland (who provided designs and components which had on their jet-powered airliner, the de Havilland Comet) and Rolls-Royce Limited
Rolls-Royce Limited
(from whom the Caravelle's Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engines were sourced)
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Alternating Current
Alternating current
Alternating current
(AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current
Alternating current
is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.[1][2] The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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SNCA Du Sud-Ouest
SNCASO (abbreviated from Société nationale des constructions aéronautiques du sud-ouest, or commonly, Sud-Ouest) was a French aircraft manufacturer, which was formed in November 16, 1936, from the merger of the factories of Blériot of Suresnes, Bloch of Villacoublay and Courbevoie, SASO (Société Aéronautique du Sud-Ouest) of Bordeaux-Mérignac, UCA (Usine de Construction Aéronautique) of Bordeaux-Bègles, Société Aérienne Bordelaise (SAB) of Bordeaux-Bacalan and Lioré et Olivier of Rochefort
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Turbomeca Marboré
The Turbomeca
Turbomeca
Marboré was a small turbojet engine produced by Turbomeca
Turbomeca
from the 1950s into the 1970s. The most popular uses of this engine were in the Fouga CM.170 Magister
Fouga CM.170 Magister
and the Morane-Saulnier MS.760 Paris. It was also licensed for production in the United States as the Teledyne CAE J69.[1]Contents1 Variants 2 Applications 3 Specifications (Marboré IIC)3.1 General characteristics 3.2 Components 3.3 Performance4 See also 5 References 6 External linksVariants[edit] The first major production version was the Marboré II, which had a maximum thrust of 3.9 kN (880 lbf) at 22,500 rpm. In its most basic form, it is a single-spool, centrifugal compressor turbojet. Fuel consumption was rated at 410 L/h (90 imp gal/h; 110 gal/h)
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Fatigue Limit
Fatigue limit, endurance limit, and fatigue strength are all expressions used to describe a property of materials: the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure.[1] Ferrous
Ferrous
alloys and titanium alloys[2] have a distinct limit, an amplitude below which there appears to be no number of cycles that will cause failure. Other structural metals such as aluminium and copper do not have a distinct limit and will eventually fail even from small stress amplitudes
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Reuleaux Triangle
A Reuleaux triangle
Reuleaux triangle
[ʁœlo] is a shape formed from the intersection of three circular disks, each having its center on the boundary of the other two. Its boundary is a curve of constant width, the simplest and best known such curve other than the circle itself.[1] Constant width means that the separation of every two parallel supporting lines is the same, independent of their orientation. Because all its diameters are the same, the Reuleaux triangle
Reuleaux triangle
is one answer to the question "Other than a circle, what shape can a manhole cover be made so that it cannot fall down through the hole?"[2] Reuleaux triangles have also been called spherical triangles, but that term more properly refers to triangles on the curved surface of a sphere
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Yvonne De Gaulle
Yvonne de Gaulle
Yvonne de Gaulle
(born Yvonne Charlotte Anne Marie Vendroux; 22 May 1900 – 8 November 1979) was the wife of Charles de Gaulle. She was sometimes known as Tante Yvonne (Aunt Yvonne). They were married on April 7, 1921. She is known for the quote, "The presidency is temporary—but the family is permanent." She and her husband narrowly escaped an assassination attempt on August 22, 1962, when their Citroën DS
Citroën DS
was targeted by machine gun fire arranged by Jean Bastien-Thiry at the Petit-Clamart. Like her husband, Yvonne de Gaulle
Yvonne de Gaulle
was a conservative Catholic, and campaigned against prostitution, the sale of pornography in newsstands and the televised display of nudity and sex, for which she earned the nickname Tante (Auntie) Yvonne. Later she unsuccessfully tried to persuade de Gaulle to outlaw miniskirts in France.[citation needed] The couple had three children: Philippe (b
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Kilogram-force
The kilogram-force (kgf or kgF), or kilopond (kp, from Latin pondus meaning weight), is a gravitational metric unit of force. It is equal to the magnitude of the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in a 7000980665000000000♠9.80665 m/s2 gravitational field (standard gravity, a conventional value approximating the average magnitude of gravity on Earth).[1] Therefore, one kilogram-force is by definition equal to 7000980665000000000♠9.80665 N.[2][3] Similarly, a gram-force is 6997980665000000000♠9.80665 mN, and a milligram-force is 6994980664999999999♠9.80665 μN
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Newton (unit)
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion. See below for the conversion factors.Contents1 Definition 2 Examples 3 Commonly seen as kilonewtons 4 Conversion factors 5 See also 6 Notes and referencesDefinition[edit] One newton is the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in direction of the applied force. In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) Resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared
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Pound (force)
The pound-force (symbol: lbf[1], sometimes lbf,[2]) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.[3] Pound force should not be confused with foot-pounds or pound-feet, which are units of torque, and may be written as "lbf⋅ft". They should not be confused with pound-mass (symbol: lb), often simply called pounds, which is a unit of mass.Contents1 Definitions1.1 Product of avoirdupois pound and standard gravity2 Conversion to other units 3 Foot–pound–second (FPS) systems of units 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesDefinitions[edit] The pound-force is equal to the gravitational force exerted on a mass of one avoirdupois pound on the surface of Earth
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Turboprop
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller.[1] In contrast to a turbojet, the engine's exhaust gases do not contain enough energy to create significant thrust, since almost all of the engine's power is used to drive the propeller. In its simplest form a turboprop consists of an intake, compressor, combustor, turbine, and a propelling nozzle. Air is drawn into the intake and compressed by the compressor. Fuel is then added to the compressed air in the combustor, where the fuel-air mixture then combusts. The hot combustion gases expand through the turbine. Some of the power generated by the turbine is used to drive the compressor. The rest is transmitted through the reduction gearing to the propeller. Further expansion of the gases occurs in the propelling nozzle, where the gases exhaust to atmospheric pressure
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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SNCASO
SNCASO
SNCASO
(abbreviated from Société nationale des constructions aéronautiques du sud-ouest, or commonly, Sud-Ouest) was a French aircraft manufacturer, which was formed in November 16, 1936, from the merger of the factories of Blériot of Suresnes, Bloch of Villacoublay and Courbevoie, SASO (Société Aéronautique du Sud-Ouest) of Bordeaux-Mérignac, UCA (Usine de Construction Aéronautique) of Bordeaux-Bègles, Société Aérienne Bordelaise
Société Aérienne Bordelaise
(SAB) of Bordeaux-Bacalan and Lioré et Olivier
Lioré et Olivier
of Rochefort
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