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Subplot
In fiction, a subplot is a secondary strand of the plot that is a supporting side story for any story or the main plot. Subplots may connect to main plots, in either time and place or in thematic significance. Subplots often involve supporting characters, those besides the protagonist or antagonist
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Fiction
Fiction
Fiction
is a story or setting that is derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.[1][2][3] Fiction can be expressed in a variety of formats, including writings, live performances, films, television programs, animations, video games, and role-playing games, though the term originally and most commonly refers to the narrative forms of literature (see literary fiction),[4] including novels, novellas, short stories, and plays. Fiction
Fiction
is occasionally used in its narrowest sense to mean simply any "literary narrative".[5] A work of fiction is an act of creative imagination, so its total faithfulness to the real-world is not typically assumed by its audience.[6] Therefore, fiction is not commonly expected to present only characters who are actual people or descriptions that are factually accurate
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Plot Twist
A plot twist is a literary technique, introducing a radical change in the direction or expected outcome of the plot in a work of fiction.[1] When it happens near the end of a story, it is known as a twist or surprise ending.[2] It may change the audience's perception of the preceding events, or introduce a new conflict that places it in a different context. A plot twist may be foreshadowed, to prepare the audience to accept it. There are a variety of methods used to execute a plot twist, such as withholding information from the audience or misleading them with ambiguous or false information. Revealing a plot twist to readers or viewers in advance is commonly regarded as a "spoiler", since the effectiveness of a plot twist usually relies on the audience not expecting it
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Dramatic Structure
Dramatic structure
Dramatic structure
is the structure of a dramatic work such as a play or film. Many scholars have analyzed dramatic structure, beginning with Aristotle
Aristotle
in his Poetics (c. 335 BCE). This article looks at Aristotle's analysis of the Greek tragedy and on Gustav Freytag's analysis of ancient Greek and Shakespearean drama.Contents1 History 2 Aristotle's analysis 3 Freytag's analysis3.1 Exposition 3.2 Rising action 3.3 Climax 3.4 Falling action 3.5 Dénouement4 Criticism 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] In his Poetics, the Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
put forth the idea the play should imitate a single whole action
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Exposition (narrative)
Narrative exposition is the insertion of important background information within a story; for example, information about the setting, characters' backstories, prior plot events, historical context, etc.[1] In a specifically literary context, exposition appears in the form of expository writing embedded within the narrative. Exposition is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes of discourse), along with description, argumentation, and narration, as elucidated by Alexander Bain
Alexander Bain
and John Genung.[2] Each of the rhetorical modes is present in a variety of forms, and each has its own purpose and conventions. There are several ways to accomplish exposition. Indirect exposition/incluing[edit] Indirect exposition, sometimes called incluing, is a technique of worldbuilding in which the reader is gradually exposed to background information about the world in which a story is set
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Eucatastrophe
Eucatastrophe
Eucatastrophe
is a term coined by English writer J. R. R. Tolkien which refers to the sudden turn of events at the end of a story which ensures that the protagonist does not meet some terrible, impending, and very plausible and probable doom.[1] Tolkien formed the word by affixing the Greek prefix eu, meaning good, to catastrophe, the word traditionally used in classically inspired literary criticism to refer to the "unraveling" or conclusion of a drama's plot
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Foreshadowing
Foreshadowing is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story. Foreshadowing often appears at the beginning of a story, or a chapter, and it helps the reader develop expectations about the upcoming events. A writer may implement foreshadowing in many different ways. Some of these ways include: character dialogues, plot events, and changes in setting. Even the title of a work or a chapter can act as a clue that suggests what is going to happen. Foreshadowing in fiction creates an atmosphere of suspense in a story, so that the readers are interested to know more. This literary device is generally used is to build anticipation in the minds of readers about what might happen next, thus adding dramatic tension to a story. Moreover, foreshadowing can make extraordinary and bizarre events appear credible, as the events are predicted beforehand so that readers are mentally prepared for them
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Flashback (narrative)
A flashback is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point in the story.[1] Flashbacks are often used to recount events that happened before the story's primary sequence of events to fill in crucial backstory.[2] In the opposite direction, a flashforward (or prolepsis) reveals events that will occur in the future.[3] Both flashback and flashforward are used to cohere a story, develop a character, or add structure to the narrative
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FlashForward
A flashforward (also spelled flash-forward; also called a prolepsis) is a scene that temporarily takes the narrative forward in time from the current point of the story in literature, film, television and other media.[1] Flashforwards are often used to represent events expected, projected, or imagined to occur in the future. They may also reveal significant parts of the story that have not yet occurred, but soon will in greater detail. It is similar to foreshadowing, in which future events are not shown but rather implicitly hinted at
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Frame Story
A frame story (also known as a frame tale or frame narrative) is a literary technique that sometimes serves as a companion piece to a story within a story, whereby an introductory or main narrative is presented, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories. The frame story leads readers from a first story into another, smaller one (or several ones) within it. The frame story may also be used to allow readers to understand a part of the story, then jump to another part that can now be understood. This is not however, to be mixed up with a narrative structure or character personality change.Contents1 Origins 2 A set of stories 3 Single story 4 Use 5 Compared to reprise 6 See also 7 NotesOrigins[edit] The earliest known frame stories are those preserved on the ancient Egyptian Papyrus Westcar
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In Medias Res
A narrative work beginning in medias res (Classical Latin: [ɪn mɛdiaːs reːs], lit. "into the middle of things") opens in the midst of action (cf. ab ovo, ab initio).[1] Often, exposition is bypassed and filled in gradually, either through dialogue, flashbacks or description of past events. For example, Hamlet
Hamlet
begins after the death of Hamlet's father. Characters make reference to King Hamlet's death without the plot's first establishment of said fact. Since the play focuses on Hamlet
Hamlet
and the revenge itself more so than the motivation, Shakespeare utilizes in medias res to bypass superfluous exposition. Works that employ in medias res often, though not always, will subsequently use flashback and nonlinear narrative for exposition of earlier events in order to fill in the backstory. For example, in Homer's Odyssey, we first learn about Odysseus's journey when he is held captive on Calypso's island
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Pace (narrative)
In literature, pace, or pacing is the speed at which a story is told. The pace is determined by the length of the scenes, how fast the action moves, and how quickly the reader is provided with information. It is also sometimes determined by the genre of the story. Comedies move faster than dramas; action adventures move faster than suspense.[1] The number of words needed to write about a certain event does not depend upon how much time the event takes to happen; it depends upon how important that moment is to the story.[2]Contents1 Action and dialogue 2 Weaving 3 Variation3.1 Within a story 3.2 Between different stories4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesAction and dialogue[edit] Storytellers have a number of writing tools at their disposal—for example, narration, action, description, and dialogue
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Plot Device
A plot device, or plot mechanism,[citation needed] is any technique in a narrative used to move the plot forward.[1] A contrived or arbitrary plot device may annoy or confuse the reader, causing a loss of the suspension of disbelief. However a well-crafted plot device, or one that emerges naturally from the setting or characters of the story, may be entirely accepted, or may even be unnoticed by the audience.Contents1 Examples of stories using plot devices 2 Examples2.1 The MacGuffin 2.2 Deus
Deus
ex machina 2.3 Shoulder angel 2.4 Red herring3 Other devices 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksExamples of stories using plot devices[edit] Many stories, especially in the fantasy genre, feature an object or objects with some great power
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Poetic Justice
Poetic justice
Poetic justice
is a literary device in which ultimately virtue is rewarded and viciousness is punished. In modern literature[citation needed] it is often accompanied by an ironic twist of fate related to the character's own action.[1]Contents1 Origin of the term 2 History of the notion 3 Examples3.1 Literature 3.2 Television and film4 See also 5 ReferencesOrigin of the term[edit] English drama critic Thomas Rymer coined the phrase in The Tragedies of the Last Age Considere'd (1678) to describe how a work should inspire proper moral behaviour in its audience by illustrating the triumph of good over evil
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Deus Ex Machina
Deus ex machina
Deus ex machina
(Latin: [ˈdeʊs ɛks ˈmaː.kʰɪ.naː]: /ˈdeɪ.əs ɛks ˈmɑːkiːnə/ or /ˈdiːəs ɛks ˈmækɪnə/;[1] plural: dei ex machina) is a Latin calque from Greek ἀπὸ μηχανῆς θεός (apò mēkhanês theós), meaning 'god from the machine'.[2] The term has evolved to mean a plot device whereby a seemingly unsolvable problem is suddenly and abruptly resolved by the inspired and unexpected intervention of some new event, character, ability, or object
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Reveal (narrative)
The reveal (also known as the big reveal) is a plot device in narrative structure, and is the exposure to the reader or audience of a previously unseen key character or element of plot or of the performance. A reveal is different from Aristotle's anagnorisis, in which something is revealed to a character rather than to the audience.Contents1 Narrative 2 Stage magic 3 Film 4 ReferencesNarrative[edit] The reveal may result in a plot twist, and could be the key plot turn or unexpected coda in the story – in the mystery genre, for example. It may also be used as a device (particularly in the climax) in stage magic by an illusionist or escape artist.[1] Stage magic[edit] In a magician's act, "the reveal" may refer to[1]the normal culmination of a trick the unexpected (to the audience) culmination of the trick an explanation of the trick – which itself may be immediately eclipsed by a version of the trick that the first reveal can't explain.Film[edit] R
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