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Submarine Landslide
Submarine landslides are marine landslides that transport sediment across the continental shelf and into the deep ocean. A submarine landslide is initiated when the downwards driving stress (gravity and other factors) exceeds the resisting stress of the seafloor slope material causing movements along one or more concave to planar rupture surfaces. Submarine landslides take place in a variety of different settings including planes as low as 1° and can cause significant damage to both life and property
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Turbidite
A turbidite is the geologic deposit of a turbidity current, which is a type of sediment gravity flow responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean.Contents1 Sequencing 2 Formation 3 Importance 4 Economic importance 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksSequencing[edit] Turbidite
Turbidite
sequence. Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Ross Sandstone
Sandstone
Formation (Namurian), County Clare, Western Ireland
Ireland
( USGS
USGS
image)Complete Bouma sequence
Bouma sequence
in Devonian Sandstone
Sandstone
(Becke-Oese, Germany)Turbidites were first properly described by Arnold H
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Oceanic Current
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon. Depth contours, shoreline configurations, and interactions with other currents influence a current's direction and strength. Therefore, ocean currents are primarily horizontal water movements. Ocean currents flow for great distances, and together, create the global conveyor belt which plays a dominant role in determining the climate of many of the Earth’s regions. More specifically, ocean currents influence the temperature of the regions through which they travel. For example, warm currents traveling along more temperate coasts increase the temperature of the area by warming the sea breezes that blow over them
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Natural Gas
Natural gas
Natural gas
is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.[2] It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.[3] Natural gas
Natural gas
is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals
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Fjord
Geologically, a fjord or fiord (/ˈfjɔːrd/ ( listen), /fiˈɔːrd/ ( listen))[1] is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.[2] There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Chile, Greenland, Iceland, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Norway, Novaya Zemlya, Labrador, Nunavut, Newfoundland, Scotland, and Washington state.[3] Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi) with 1,190 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) when fjords are excluded.[4][5]Contents1 Formation 2 Fjord
Fjord
features and variations
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Plasticity (physics)
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.[1][2] For example, a solid piece of metal being bent or pounded into a new shape displays plasticity as permanent changes occur within the material itself. In engineering, the transition from elastic behavior to plastic behavior is called yield. Plastic
Plastic
deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, soils, rocks, concrete, foams, bone and skin.[3][4][5][6][7][8] However, the physical mechanisms that cause plastic deformation can vary widely. At a crystalline scale, plasticity in metals is usually a consequence of dislocations. Such defects are relatively rare in most crystalline materials, but are numerous in some and part of their crystal structure; in such cases, plastic crystallinity can result
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Silt
Silt
Silt
is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz[1] and feldspar. Silt
Silt
may occur as a soil (often mixed with sand or clay) or as sediment mixed in suspension with water (also known as a suspended load) and soil in a body of water such as a river. It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body, like mudflows from landslides. Silt
Silt
has a moderate specific area with a typically non-sticky, plastic feel. Silt usually has a floury feel when dry, and a slippery feel when wet. Silt can be visually observed with a hand lens, exhibiting a sparkly appearance
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Moraine
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris previously carried along by a glacier and normally consist of somewhat rounded particles ranging in size from large boulders to minute glacial flour. Lateral moraines are formed at the side of the ice flow and terminal moraines at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier
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Till
Till
Till
or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment. Till
Till
is derived from the erosion and entrainment of material by the moving ice of a glacier. It is deposited some distance down-ice to form terminal, lateral, medial and ground moraines. Till
Till
is classified into primary deposits, laid down directly by glaciers, and secondary deposits, reworked by fluvial transport and other processes.Contents1 Processes 2 Tillite 3 Types 4 See also 5 ReferencesProcesses[edit] Glacial drift is the coarsely graded and extremely heterogeneous sediment of a glacier; till is the part of glacial drift deposited directly by the glacier. Its content may vary from clays to mixtures of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders. This material is mostly derived from the subglacial erosion and entrainment by the moving ice of the glaciers of previously available unconsolidated sediments
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Volcanic Island
In geology (and sometimes in archaeology), a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcanic origin. The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the uplifting of coral reefs[1] (which have often formed on sunken volcanos).Contents1 Definition and origin 2 Habitability for humans 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition and origin[edit] There are a number of "high islands" which rise no more than a few feet above sea level, often classified as "islets or rocks", while some "low islands", such as Makatea, Nauru, Niue, Henderson and Banaba, as uplifted coral islands, rise several hundred feet above sea level. The two types of islands are often found in proximity to each other, especially among the islands of the South Pacific Ocean, where low islands are found on the fringing reefs that surround most high islands
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Lava
Lava
Lava
is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). The resulting structures after solidification and cooling are also sometimes described as lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava
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Hawaiian Islands
The Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
(Hawaiian: Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the "Sandwich Islands", a name chosen by James Cook
James Cook
in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty
First Lord of the Admiralty
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii
Hawaii
Island. The Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in 1893. The islands were subsequently put under the control of a republic, which the United States annexed in 1898.[1] The U.S. state
U.S

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Storegga
Coordinates: 64°52′N 1°18′E / 64.867°N 1.300°E / 64.867; 1.300Map of Storegga SlidesThe three Storegga Slides are considered to be amongst the largest known landslides. They occurred under water, at the edge of Norway's continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea, approximately 6225–6170 BCE. The collapse involved an estimated 290 km (180 mi) length of coastal shelf, with a total volume of 3,500 km3 (840 cu mi) of debris, which caused a very large tsunami in the North Atlantic Ocean.Contents1 Description 2 Possible mechanism 3 Impact on human populations 4 Modern day impact 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDescription[edit]The yellow numbers give the height of the tsunami wave as tsunamites recently studied by researchers.[1]The three Storegga Slides are considered to be amongst the largest known landslides
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Hurricane
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane (/ˈhʌrɪkən, -keɪn/),[1][2][3] typhoon (/taɪˈfuːn/), tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.[4] A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; while in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as “tropical cyclones” or “severe cyclonic storms”.[4] “Tropical” refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas
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Glacial
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago.[1] The Holocene
Holocene
epoch is the current interglacial. A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state.[2][3][4]Look up glaciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Contents1 Quaternary ice age 2 Last glacial period 3 Next glacial period 4 See also 5 ReferencesQuaternary ice age[edit] Main articles: Quaternary glaciation
Quaternary glaciation
and timeline of glaciationGlacial and interglacial cycles as represented by atmospheric CO2, measured from ice core samples going back 800,000 years. The stage names are part of the North American and the European Alpine subdivisions
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Interglacial
An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age
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