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Sublimis Deus
Sublimis Deus (English: The sublime God;[1] erroneously cited as Sublimus Dei) is a papal encyclical promulgated by Pope
Pope
Paul III
Paul III
on June 2, 1537, which forbids the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (called Indians of the West and the South) and all other people.[2] It went further to state that the Indians were fully rational human beings and had rights to freedom and private property, even if they were heathen[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] It strengthened the recent decree issued by Charles V of Spain in 1530 in which the King prohibited the enslavement of Indians.[10] Another related document was the ecclesiastical letter Pastorale Officium, issued May 29, 1537, and usually seen as a companion document to Sublimis Deus.[11] There is still some controversy about how this bull is related to the documents known as Veritas Ipsa, Unigenitus Deus, and Pastorale Officium (May 29, 1537)
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Papal Encyclical
An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Roman Church. At that time, the word could be used for a letter sent out by any bishop
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Pope Alexander VI
Pope
Pope
Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (Valencian: Roderic Llançol i de Borja [roðeˈɾiɡ ʎanˈsɔɫ i ðe ˈβɔɾdʒa], Spanish: Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja [roˈðɾiɣo lanˈθol i ðe ˈβorxa]; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope
Pope
from 11 August 1492 until his death. During the Age of Discovery, the Iberian-born pope's bulls of 1493 confirmed or reconfirmed the rights of the Spanish crown in the New World, following the finds of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in 1492.[3][4] He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, partly because he acknowledged fathering several children by his mistresses. Therefore his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate
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Saracens
Saracen
Saracen
was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Greek and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, and who were specifically distinguished from others as a people known as Arabs.[1][2] In Europe during the Early Middle Ages, the term came to be associated with tribes of Arabia as well.[3] By the 12th century, "Saracen" had become synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
literature
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Paganism
Paganism
Paganism
is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christianity
Christianity
for populations of the Roman E
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Gospel
Gospel
Gospel
is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".[1] It originally meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out.[2][Notes 1] The four gospels of the New Testament
New Testamen

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New Testament
The New Testament
New Testament
(Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Latin: Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament
New Testament
discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians
Christians
regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture. The New Testament
New Testament
(in whole or in part) has frequently accompanied the spread of Christianity
Christianity
around the world. It reflects and serves as a source for Christian theology
Christian theology
and morality
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Sons Of Noah
The Generations of Noah
Noah
or Table of Nations ( Genesis 10 of the Hebrew Bible) is a genealogy of the sons of Noah
Noah
and their dispersion into many lands after the Flood,[1] focusing on the major known societies. The term "nations" to describe the desc
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Juan De Zumárraga
Don Juan de Zumárraga
Juan de Zumárraga
y Arrazola[1] (1468 – June 3, 1548) was a Spanish Basque Franciscan
Franciscan
prelate and first bishop of Mexico.[2] He wrote Doctrina breve, the first book published in the Western hemisphere, printed in Mexico City
Mexico City
in 1539.[3]Contents1 Origins and arrival in New Spain 2 "Protector of the Indians" 3 Evangelization efforts 4 Later years 5 Further reading 6 References 7 ReferencesOrigins and arrival in New Spain[edit] Zumárraga was born in 1468 or 1469 of a noble family, in Durango in the Biscay
Biscay
province in Spain. He entered the Franciscan
Franciscan
Order, and in 1527 was custodian of the convent of Abrojo. Shortly afterwards he was appointed one of the judges of the court for the examination of witches in the Basque province
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Denzinger
Heinrich Joseph Dominicus Denzinger (10 November 1819 – 19 June 1883) was a leading German Catholic theologian and author of the Enchiridion Symbolorum et Definitionum (Handbook of Creeds and Definitions) commonly referred to simply as "Denzinger".Contents1 Life of Denzinger 2 The Enchiridion Symbolorum et Definitionum 3 Other works by Denzinger 4 External links (for text of the Enchiridion)Life of Denzinger[edit] Heinrich Denzinger was born on 10 October 1819 at Liege. In 1831 his father, who was a professor at the Liege University, took him to Würzburg, the original home of the family. Here he attended the gymnasium and studied philosophy at the university, where he received the Ph.D. degree
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Inter Caetera
Inter caetera
Inter caetera
("Among other [works]") was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on the fourth May (quarto nonas maii) 1493, which granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella (as sovereigns of Castile) all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores
Azores
or the Cape Verde islands.[1] It remains unclear to the present whether the pope was issuing a "donation" of sovereignty or a feudal infeodation or investiture. Differing interpretations have been argued since the bull was issued, with some arguing that it was only meant to transform the possession and occupation of land into lawful sovereignty
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Pope
The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas,[1] a child's word for "father"),[2] also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest bridge-builder"), is the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.[3] The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the supposed apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus is said to have given the Keys of Heaven
Keys of Heaven
and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City,[4] a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.[5] The office of the pope is the papacy
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Catholic Church And The Age Of Discovery
Discovery
Discovery
may refer to: Discovery
Discovery
(observation), observing or finding something unknown Discovery
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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Toyin Falola
Toyin Omoyeni Falola (born 1 January 1953 in Ibadan) is a Nigerian historian and professor of African Studies. He is currently the Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin.[1] Falola earned his B.A. and Ph.D. (1981) in History at the University of Ife, Ile-Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University), in Nigeria. He is a Fellow of the Historical Society of Nigeria and of the Nigerian Academy of Letters
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