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Subglottic Stenosis
Subglottic stenosis
Subglottic stenosis
is a congenital or acquired narrowing of the subglottic airway.[1] Although it is relatively rare, it is the third most common congenital airway problem (after laryngomalacia and vocal cord paralysis). Subglottic stenosis
Subglottic stenosis
can present as a life-threatening airway emergency. It is imperative that the otolaryngologist be an expert at dealing with the diagnosis and management of this disorder. Subglottic stenosis
Subglottic stenosis
can affect both children and adults.Contents1 Types 2 Diagnosis 3 Management 4 Additional images 5 References 6 External linksTypes[edit] Subglottic stenosis
Subglottic stenosis
can be of three forms, namely congenital subglottic stenosis, idiopathic subglottic stenosis (ISS) and acquired subglottic stenosis. As the name suggests, congenital subglottic stenosis is a birth defect
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Choanal Atresia
Choanal atresia
Choanal atresia
is a congenital disorder where the back of the nasal passage (choana) is blocked, usually by abnormal bony or soft tissue (membranous) due to failed recanalization of the nasal fossae during fetal development.Contents1 Presentation 2 Associated conditions 3 Diagnosis 4 Risk factors 5 Treatment 6 In popular culture 7 References 8 External linksPresentation[edit] It can be unilateral or bilateral.Sometimes, a unilateral choanal atresia is not detected until much later in life because the baby manages to get along with only one nostril available for breathing. Bilateral choanal atresia is a very serious life-threatening condition because the baby will then be unable to breathe directly after birth as babies are obligate nasal breathers (they mainly use their noses to breathe)
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Human Nose
The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. The shape of the nose is determined by the nasal bones and the nasal cartilages, including the septal cartilage (which separates the nostrils) and the upper and lower lateral cartilages. On average the nose of a male is larger than that of a female.[1] The nose has an area of specialised cells which are responsible for smelling (part of the olfactory system). Another function of the nose is the conditioning of inhaled air, warming it and making it more humid. Hairs inside the nose prevent large particles from entering the lungs. Sneezing
Sneezing
is usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa, but can more rarely be caused by sudden exposure to bright light (called the photic sneeze reflex) or touching the external auditory canal
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Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis
is a disease in which there is permanent enlargement of parts of the airways of the lung.[4] Symptoms typically include a chronic cough with mucus production.[2] Other symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and chest pain.[1] Wheezing and nail clubbing may also occur.[1] Those with the disease often get frequent lung infections.[7] Bronchiectasis
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Lung
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung
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Tracheobronchomegaly
Tracheobronchomegaly is a very rare congenital disorder of the lung primarily characterized by an abnormal widening of the upper airways.[1] The abnormally widened trachea and mainstem bronchi are associated with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and copious purulent sputum production, eventually leading to bronchiectasis and other respiratory complications.[2]Contents1 Cause 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 History 5 References 6 External linksCause[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (August 2017)Diagnosis[edit] Woodring et al. (1991) suggested the following diagnostic criteria for tracheomegaly in adults based on chest radiography:[3]Adult Males: Tracheal transverse diameter > 25 mm and sagittal diameter > 27 mm. Adult Females: Tracheal transverse diameter > 21 mm and sagittal diameter > 23 mm.Treatment[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it
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Bronchomalacia
Bronchomalacia
Bronchomalacia
is a term for weak cartilage in the walls of the bronchial tubes, often occurring in children under six months. Bronchomalacia
Bronchomalacia
means 'floppiness' of some part of the bronchi. Patients present with noisy breathing and/or wheezing. There is collapse of a main stem bronchus on exhalation. If the trachea is also involved the term tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is used. If only the upper airway the trachea is involved it is called tracheomalacia (TM). There are two types of bronchomalacia. Primary bronchomalacia is due to a deficiency in the cartilaginous rings. Secondary bronchomalacia may occur by extrinsic compression from an enlarged vessel, a vascular ring or a bronchogenic cyst
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Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), formerly known as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM), is a congenital disorder of the lung similar to bronchopulmonary sequestration. In CPAM, usually an entire lobe of lung is replaced by a non-working cystic piece of abnormal lung tissue. This abnormal tissue will never function as normal lung tissue. The underlying cause for CPAM is unknown. It occurs in approximately 1 in every 30,000 pregnancies.[1] In most cases the outcome of a fetus with CPAM is very good. In rare cases, the cystic mass grows so large as to limit the growth of the surrounding lung and cause pressure against the heart. In these situations, the CPAM can be life-threatening for the fetus. CPAM can be separated into five types, based on clinical and pathologic features.[2] CPAM type 1 is the most common, with large cysts and a good prognosis
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Tracheomalacia
Tracheomalacia is a condition where the cartilage that keeps the airway (trachea) open is soft such that the trachea partly collapses especially during increased airflow. The usual symptom is stridor when a person breathes out. The trachea normally opens slightly during breathing in and narrows slightly during breathing out. These processes are exaggerated in tracheomalacia, leading to airway collapse on breathing out. If the condition extends further to the large airways (bronchi) (if there is also bronchomalacia), it is termed tracheobronchomalacia. The same condition can also affect the larynx, which is called laryngomalacia
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Bronchus
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs. The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right main bronchus and the left main bronchus. These are the widest and enter the lungs at each hilum, where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi known as lobar bronchi, and these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi known as segmental bronchi. Further divisions of the segmental bronchi are known as 4th order, 5th order, and 6th order segmental bronchi, or grouped together as subsegmental bronchi.[1][2] The bronchi when too narrow to be supported by cartilage are known as bronchioles
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Tracheal Disease
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs. The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage attaches it to the larynx. This is the only complete tracheal ring, the others being incomplete rings of reinforcing cartilage. The trachealis muscle joins the ends of the rings and these are joined vertically by bands of fibrous connective tissue – the annular ligaments of trachea. The epiglottis closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing. The trachea develops in the second month of development. It is lined with an epithelium that has goblet cells which produce protective mucins (see Respiratory epithelium). An inflammatory condition, also involving the larynx and bronchi, called croup can result in a barking cough
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Lower Respiratory Tract
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration. Air is breathed in through the nose or the mouth. In the nasal cavity, a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves into the pharynx, a passage that contains the intersection between the esophagus and the larynx. The opening of the larynx has a special flap of cartilage, the epiglottis, that opens to allow air to pass through but closes to prevent food from moving into the airway. From the larynx, air moves into the trachea and down to the intersection that branches to form the right and left primary (main) bronchi
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Laryngocele
Representation of a surgical site; laryngocele DiseasesDB = 7271Classification and external resourcesICD-10 Q31.3ICD-9-CM 748.3[edit on Wikidata]Laryngocele refers to a congenital anomalous air sac communicating with the cavity of the larynx, which may bulge outward on the neck.[1] It may also be acquired, as seen in glassblowers, due to continual forced expiration producing increased pressures in the larynx which leads to dilatation of the laryngeal ventricle (Sinus of Morgagni)
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Laryngeal Cyst
Laryngeal cysts are cysts involving the larynx or more frequently supraglottic locations, such as epiglottis and vallecula.[1] Usually they do not extend to the thyroid cartilage.[2] They may be present congenitally[3] or may develop eventually due to degenerative cause.[4] They often interfere with phonation.Contents1 Clinical presentation 2 Diagnosis2.1 Types3 Treatment 4 Epidemiology 5 See also 6 ReferencesClinical presentation[edit] Hoarseness is the most common presenting symptom, while pain, stridor or laryngeal obstruction are unusual complaints.[5] They may cause significant respiratory obstruction leading to dyspnoea or respiratory distress[3] and even cyanosis, and jugular and epigastric retractions.[1] Congenital lesions may present with severe airway obstruction at birth calling for emergency intervention and intubation.[1] Diagnosis[edit] Types[edit] There are three types of laryngeal cysts, namely, mucous, hemorrhagic and congenital.[6]
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Larynx
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. The larynx houses the vocal folds, and manipulates pitch and volume, which is essential for phonation. It is situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus. The word larynx (plural larynges) comes from a similar Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word (λάρυγξ lárynx).[1]Contents1 Structure1.1 Location 1.2 Cartilages 1.3 Muscles1.3.1 Intrinsic 1.3.2 Extrinsic1.4 Nerve supply 1.5 Development2 Function2.1 Sound generation 2.2 Other3 Clinical significance3.1 Disorders4 Other animals4.1 Non-mammals5 History 6 Additional images 7 See also 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 SourcesStructure[edit] Location[edit] In adult humans, the larynx is found in the anterior neck at the level of the C3–C6 vertebrae
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Arrhinia
Arhinia, also called nasal agenesis, is the congenital partial or complete absence of the nose at birth. It is an extremely rare condition, with 47 reported cases in the history of modern medicine.[1] It is generally classified as a craniofacial abnormality.Contents1 Cause 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 Etymology 5 References 6 External linksCause[edit] The cause of arrhinia is not known.[1][2] Akkuzu's study of the literature found that all cases had presented a normal antenatal history.[2] Diagnosis[edit]This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (November 2017)Treatment[edit] Treatment focuses on identifying the nature of the anomalies through various imaging methods, including MRI and CAT scan, and surgical correction to the extent possible.[2] Etymology[edit] The word arrhinia derives from the Greek root rhinos (nose) prefixed with the Greek negation prefix a-.[citation needed] References[edit]^ a b Albernaz, Vanessa; Mauricio Castillo; Suresh K
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