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Sturm Und Drang
Sturm und Drang
Sturm und Drang
(German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊɐ̯m ʊnt ˈdʁaŋ], literally "storm and drive", "storm and urge", though conventionally translated as "storm and stress")[1] was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature
German literature
and music that occurred between the late 1760s and the early 1780s. Within the movement, individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements. The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, which was first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann
Johann Georg Hamann
is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang, with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, H. L
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Universalism
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.[citation needed] A community that calls itself universalist may emphasize the universal principles of most religions and accept other religions in an inclusive manner, believing in a universal reconciliation between humanity and the divine.[citation needed] For example, some forms of Abrahamic religions
Abraham

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Paolo Frisi
Paolo Frisi
Paolo Frisi
(13 April 1728 – 22 November 1784) was an Italian mathematician and astronomer.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 See also 4 ReferencesBiography[edit]A 19th century medallion of Paolo Frisi
Paolo Frisi
on the facade of Palazzo Beccaria in via Brera street, Milan
Milan
(birthplace of Cesare Beccaria).Frisi was born in Melegnano
Melegnano
in 1728; his sibling Antonio Francesco, born in 1735, went on to be a historian.[1] Frisi was educated at the local Barnabite
Barnabite
monastery and afterwards in that of Padua. When twenty-one years of age he composed a treatise on the figure of the earth, and the reputation which he soon acquired led to his appointment by the King of Sardinia to the professorship of philosophy in the College of Casale
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Socio-political
Political sociology
Political sociology
is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena ranging from the State, to civil society, to the family, investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power. The lineage of this discipline is typically traced from such thinkers as Montesquieu, Smith and Ferguson through the "founding fathers" of sociology – Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber – to such contemporary theorists as Gellner, Giddens, Habermas and Mann
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Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
(from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin
Latin
classicus, "of the highest rank")[1] is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity. Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
was born in Rome
Rome
in the mid-18th century, at the time of the rediscovery of Pompeii
Pompeii
and Herculaneum, but its popularity spread all over Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour
Grand Tour
and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals.[2][3] The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism
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American Revolution
The American Revolution
Revolution
was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States
United States
of America. They defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with France and others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. They rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body
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Individuality
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity. Individuality (or selfhood) is the state or quality of being an individual; particularly of being a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs or goals, rights and responsibilities. The exact definition of an individual is important in the fields of biology, law, and philosophy. From the 15th century and earlier (and also today within the fields of statistics and metaphysics) individual meant "indivisible", typically describing any numerically singular thing, but sometimes meaning "a person". From the 17th century on, individual indicates separateness, as in individualism.[1] Although individuality and individualism are commonly considered to mature with age/time and experience/wealth, a sane adult human being is usually considered by the state as an "individual person" in law, even if the person denies individual culpability ("I followed instructions")
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Ideal (ethics)
An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal, usually in the context of ethics, and one's prioritization of ideals can serve to indicate the extent of one's dedication to each. For example, someone who espouses the ideal of honesty, but is willing to lie to protect a friend, demonstrates not only devotion to friendship, but also belief in its supersedence of honesty in importance.Contents1 In applied ethics 2 In politics 3 Idols and heroes 4 Ideal and virtue 5 Relative ideal 6 See also 7 Sources 8 External linksIn applied ethics[edit] In some theories of applied ethics, such as that of Rushworth Kidder, there is importance given to such orders as a way to resolve disputes. In law, for instance, a judge is sometimes called on to resolve the balance between the ideal of truth, which would advise hearing out all evidence, and the ideal of fairness. In politics[edit] In politics ideals play a pivotal role
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Empiricism
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.[1] It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism
Empiricism
emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the idea of innate ideas or traditions;[2] empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.[3] Empiricism
Empiricism
in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments
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Rationalism
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge"[3] or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".[4] More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive".[5] In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction
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Objectivity (philosophy)
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the state or quality of being true even outside a subject's individual biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings. A proposition is generally considered objectively true (to have objective truth) when its truth conditions are met without biases caused by feelings, ideas, opinions, etc., of a sentient subject. A second, broader meaning of the term refers to the ability in any context to judge fairly, without partiality or external influence. This second meaning of objectivity is sometimes used synonymously with neutrality.Contents1 Objectivity of knowledge 2 Objectivity in ethics2.1 Ethical subjectivism 2.2 Ethical objectivism3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksObjectivity of knowledge[edit]This section possibly contains original research
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Rationality
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.[1][2] Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons to believe, and of one's actions with one's reasons for action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in philosophy,[3] economics, sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, game theory and political science. To determine what behavior is the most rational, one needs to make several key assumptions, and also needs a quantifiable formulation[dubious – discuss] of the problem. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in all information that is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge). Collectively, the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which rationality applies
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Baroque
The Baroque
Baroque
(US: /bəˈroʊk/ or UK: /bəˈrɒk/) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. It followed the Renaissance style
Renaissance style
and preceded the Neoclassical style. It was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant
Protestant
architecture, art and music. The baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began in the first third of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany
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French Neoclassical Theatre
Contents1 Historic overview1.1 Secular French theatre 1.2 Renaissance theatre 1.3 Early modern theatres and theatrical companies 1.4 Baroque theatre 1.5 17th-century classicism 1.6 Theatre under Louis XIV 1.7 18th century 1.8 19th century 1.9 20th century2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistoric overview[edit] Secular French theatre[edit] Discussions about the origins of non-religious theatre ("théâtre profane") -- both drama and farce—in the Middle Ages remain controversial, but the idea of a continuous popular tradition stemming from Latin
Latin
comedy and tragedy to the 9th century seems unlikely. Most historians place the origin of medieval drama in the church's liturgical dialogues and "tropes"
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French Neoclassicism
18th-century French art
French art
was dominated by the Baroque, Rocaille
Rocaille
and neoclassical movements. History[edit] In France, the death of Louis XIV in September 1715 led to a period of licentious freedom commonly called the Régence. The heir to Louis XIV, his great grandson Louis XV of France, was only 5 years old; for the next seven years France was ruled by the regent Philippe II of Orléans. Versailles was abandoned from 1715 to 1722. Painting turned toward "fêtes galantes", theater settings and the female nude. Painters from this period include Antoine Watteau, Nicolas Lancret
Nicolas Lancret
and François Boucher
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Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
(/kænt/;[8] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.[9] Kant argues that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of human sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of humanity's concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution" in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolves around the earth
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