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Stuffing Box
A stuffing box is an assembly which is used to house a gland seal.[1] It is used to prevent leakage of fluid, such as water or steam, between sliding or turning parts of machine elements.Contents1 Components 2 Gland 3 Applications3.1 Boats 3.2 Steam engines4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksComponents[edit] A stuffing box of a sailboat will have a stern tube that's slightly bigger than the prop shaft. It will also have packing nut threads or a gland nut. The packing is inside the gland nut and creates the seal. The shaft is wrapped by the packing and put in the gland nut. Through tightening it onto the stern tube, the packing is compressed, creating a seal against the shaft.[2] Creating a proper plunger alignment is critical for correct flow and a long wear life
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Centrifugal Governor
A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor with a feedback system that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel (or working fluid) admitted, so as to maintain a near-constant speed, irrespective of the load or fuel-supply conditions. It uses the principle of proportional control. It was invented in 1788 by James Watt
James Watt
to control his steam engine where it regulates the admission of steam into the cylinder(s). Its widest use was on steam engines during the Steam Age in the 19th century. It is also found on internal combustion engines and variously fueled turbines, and in some modern striking clocks.Contents1 Operation1.1 Non-gravitational regulation2 History 3 Dynamic systems3.1 As an influence on cybernetics4 See also 5 ReferencesOperation[edit]Cut-away drawing of steam engine speed governor
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Gab Valve Gear
Gab valve gear
Gab valve gear
was an early form of valve gear used on steam engines. Its simplest form allowed an engine to be stopped and started. A double form, mostly used on steam locomotives, allowed easy reversing.[1] Winding engine
Winding engine
at Blists Hill. The red handwheel is the steam stop valve, the lever in front of the engine driver disengages the valve gear gab.Contents1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Gab valve gear3.1 Stationary engines 3.2 Locomotives4 Developments 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word gab or gabb may derive from a word for mouth, recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
from 1724, and probably medieval in origin from other forms related to gossip or idle chatter. The OED also gives the steam engine sense of gab as a notch in the valvegear as possibly being of Flemish
Flemish
origin, from the word gabbe
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Uniflow Steam Engine
The uniflow type of steam engine uses steam that flows in one direction only in each half of the cylinder. Thermal efficiency
Thermal efficiency
is increased in the compound and multiple expansion types of steam engine by separating expansion into steps in separate cylinders; in the uniflow design, thermal efficiency is achieved by having a temperature gradient along the cylinder. Steam always enters at the hot ends of the cylinder and exhausts through ports at the cooler centre
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Valve
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. The word is derived from the Latin valva, the moving part of a door, in turn from volvere, to turn, roll. The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid (gas or liquid) flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction
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Slide Valve
The slide valve is a rectilinear valve used to control the admission of steam into, and emission of exhaust from, the cylinder of a steam engine.The image description page explains how this SVG animation can be viewedContents1 Use 2 Murdoch's D slide valve 3 Balanced slide valve 4 See also 5 External linksUse[edit] In the 19th century, most steam locomotives used slide valves to control the flow of steam into and out of the cylinders. In the 20th century, slide valves were gradually superseded by piston valves, particularly in engines using superheated steam. There were two reasons for this:With piston valves, the steam passages can be made shorter
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Piston Valve (steam Engine)
Piston
Piston
valves are one form of valve used to control the flow of steam within a steam engine or locomotive. They control the admission of steam into the cylinders and its subsequent exhausting, enabling a locomotive to move under its own power. The valve consists of two piston heads on a common spindle moving inside a steam chest, which is essentially a mini-cylinder located either above or below the main cylinders of the locomotive.Contents1 Overview 2 Examples 3 Design principles3.1 Lap 3.2 Lead 3.3 Valve
Valve
travel 3.4 Calculating valve events4 See also 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] In the 19th century, steam locomotives used slide valves to control the flow of steam into and out of the cylinders. In the 20th century, slide valves were gradually superseded by piston valves, particularly in engines using superheated steam
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Double Beat Valve
The double-beat valve, drop valve or equilibrium valve is a type of poppet valve arranged to allow it to be opened against a high pressure with a minimum of force. One of its uses is in steam engines to admit steam to the cylinders and to release the exhaust. In stationary steam engines it is usually operated by trip valve gear while in railway locomotives a valve gear such as Caprotti is used.Contents1 Hornblower's valve 2 Cornish valve 3 Valve
Valve
gears 4 See also 5 ReferencesHornblower's valve[edit] It was invented around 1800 by Jonathan Hornblower.[1] His valve is in the form of a hollow cylinder provided with two seats of nearly equal diameter, at A and B in the diagram.[1] The cylinder is connected to the actuating rod by a web. The force required to lift the valve depends on the difference between diameters D and d: the smaller this difference can be made, the less the force necessary to open the valve
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Corliss Steam Engine
A Corliss steam engine
Corliss steam engine
(or Corliss engine) is a steam engine, fitted with rotary valves and with variable valve timing patented in 1849, invented by and named after the American engineer George Henry Corliss of Providence, Rhode Island. Engines fitted with Corliss valve gear offered the best thermal efficiency of any type of stationary steam engine until the refinement of the uniflow steam engine and steam turbine in the 20th century. Corliss engines were generally about 30 percent more fuel efficient than conventional steam engines with fixed cutoff.[1] This increased efficiency made steam power more economical than water power, allowing industrial development away from millponds.[2] Corliss engines were typically used as stationary engines to provide mechanical power to line shafting in factories and mills and to drive dynamos to generate electricity
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Poppet Valve
A poppet valve (also called mushroom valve[1]) is a valve typically used to control the timing and quantity of gas or vapour flow into an engine. It consists of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. The portion of the hole where the plug meets with it is referred to as the 'seat' or 'valve seat'. The shaft guides the plug portion by sliding through a valve guide. In exhaust applications a pressure differential helps to seal the valve and in intake valves a pressure differential helps open it. The poppet valve was most likely invented in 1833 by E.A.G
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Sleeve Valve
The sleeve valve is a type of valve mechanism for piston engines, distinct from the usual poppet valve. Sleeve valve
Sleeve valve
engines saw use in a number of pre- World War II
World War II
luxury cars and in the United States in the Willys-Knight
Willys-Knight
car and light truck. They subsequently fell from use due to advances in poppet-valve technology, including sodium cooling, and the Knight system double sleeve engine's tendency to burn a lot of lubricating oil or to seize due to lack of it
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Bash Valve
A bash valve is a valve within a piston engine, used to control the admission of the working fluid.[1] They are directly actuated valves, operated by contact between the piston and the valve tip. Bash valves have the advantage of great simplicity, for manufacture and operation. Their disadvantages are that their opening and closing times are relatively crudely controlled, compared to other types of valve gear. The valve is usually constructed as a circular poppet valve with a conical seat, inserted into the cylinder from the outside. A protrusion on the inside is hit by the piston as it approaches top dead centre, forcing the valve open. Bash valves are usually held closed by the pressure of fluid in the reservoir behind them. There may be a light spring to assist closing when the reservoir is empty. For this reason they are used as inlet valves, not exhaust
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Valve Gear
The valve gear of a steam engine is the mechanism that operates the inlet and exhaust valves to admit steam into the cylinder and allow exhaust steam to escape, respectively, at the correct points in the cycle. It can also serve as a reversing gear. It is sometimes referred to as the "motion".Contents1 Purpose 2 Valve
Valve
gear designs2.1 Reciprocating valve gears2.1.1 Early types 2.1.2 Link gears2.1.2.1 Constant lead gear (Walschaerts-type gear) 2.1.2.2 Dual eccentric gear (Stephenson-type gears)2.1.3 Lever and link gear (Baker-type) 2.1.4 Radial gears2.2 Poppet valve
Poppet valve
gears 2.3 Conjugating gears 2.4 Bulleid chain-driven valve gear 2.5 Corliss valve
Corliss valve
gear3 Power reverse 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksPurpose[edit] In the simple case, this can be a relatively simple task as in the internal combustion engine in which the valves always open and close at the same points
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Stephenson Valve Gear
The Stephenson valve gear
Stephenson valve gear
or Stephenson link or shifting link[1] is a simple design of valve gear that was widely used throughout the world for all kinds of steam engines. It is named after Robert Stephenson[2] but was invented by his employees.Contents1 Historical background 2 Applications 3 Derivatives3.1 Gooch valve gear 3.2 Allan straight link valve gear4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistorical background[edit] During the 1830s the most popular valve drive for locomotives was known as gab motion in the U.K
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Cornish Engine
A Cornish engine
Cornish engine
is a type of steam engine developed in Cornwall, England, mainly for pumping water from a mine. It is a form of beam engine that uses steam at a higher pressure than the earlier engines designed by James Watt. The engines were also used for powering man engines to assist the underground miners' journeys to and from their working levels, for winching materials into and out of the mine, and for powering on-site ore stamping machinery.[1]Contents1 Background: The steam engine in Cornwall 2 Cornish cycle 3 Characteristics 4 Development of the Cornish engine 5 Preserved Cornish engines 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksBackground: The steam engine in Cornwall[edit] Cornwall
Cornwall
has long had tin, copper and other metal ore mines, but if mining is to take place at greater depths, a means of draining water from the mine must be found
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Joy Valve Gear
Joy valve gear
Joy valve gear
is a type of steam locomotive valve gear, designed by David Joy (3 March 1825 – 1903), Locomotive and Marine engineer, and patented (no. 929) on 8 March 1879.[1] The British patent has not been found but the US patent (US252224 of 10 January 1882) has.[2] Joy's gear is similar to Hackworth valve gear
Hackworth valve gear
but has a compensating mechanism which corrects for "the slight inequality in the motion of the valve arising from the arc of the lever".[3] The drawing (right) shows the Joy gear as applied to a London and North Western Railway locomotive.[4] The US patent shows several modifications of the gear. In figure 6 of the patent, one of the levers has been replaced by a slide.Contents1 Operation 2 Applications 3 Preservation 4 Greenly-Joy valve gear 5 References 6 External linksOperation[edit] The movement is derived from a vertical link connected to the connecting rod
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