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Stock Option
In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option. The strike price may be set by reference to the spot price (market price) of the underlying security or commodity on the day an option is taken out, or it may be fixed at a discount or at a premium. The seller has the corresponding obligation to fulfill the transaction – to sell or buy – if the buyer (owner) "exercises" the option. An option that conveys to the owner the right to buy at a specific price is referred to as a call; an option that conveys the right of the owner to sell at a specific price is referred to as a put
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Currency
A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.[1][2] A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation.[3] Under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, and European euros are examples of currency. These various currencies are recognized stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies.[4] Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote, coin, and money
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Trader (finance)
For information about the moral problem of trading it is necessary to refer to the public contents on web.Financial marketsPublic market Exchange · SecuritiesBond marketBond valuation Corporate bond Fixed income Government bond High-yield debt Municipal bondSecuritization Stock
Stock
marketCommon stock Preferred stock Registered share Stock Stock
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Exchange Rate
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. It is also regarded as the value of one country’s currency in relation to another currency.[1] For example, an interbank exchange rate of 114 Japanese yen
Japanese yen
to the United States dollar means that ¥114 will be exchanged for each US$1 or that US$1 will be exchanged for each ¥114. In this case it is said that the price of a dollar in relation to yen is ¥114, or equivalently that the price of a yen in relation to dollars is $1/114. Exchange rates are determined in the foreign exchange market,[2] which is open to a wide range of different types of buyers and sellers, and where currency trading is continuous: 24 hours a day except weekends, i.e. trading from 20:15 GMT
GMT
on Sunday until 22:00 GMT
GMT
Friday. The spot exchange rate refers to the current exchange rate
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Commodity Market
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products. Soft commodities are agricultural products such as wheat, coffee, cocoa, fruit and sugar. Hard commodities are mined, such as gold and oil.[1] Investors access about 50 major commodity markets worldwide with purely financial transactions increasingly outnumbering physical trades in which goods are delivered. Futures contracts are the oldest way of investing in commodities. Futures are secured by physical assets.[2] Commodity markets can include physical trading and derivatives trading using spot prices, forwards, futures, and options on futures. Farmers have used a simple form of derivative trading in the commodity market for centuries for price risk management.[3] A financial derivative is a financial instrument whose value is derived from a commodity termed an underlier.[2] Derivatives are either exchange-traded or over-the-counter (OTC)
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Money Market
As money became a commodity, the money market became a component of the financial markets for assets involved in short-term borrowing, lending, buying and selling with original maturities of one year or less
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Real Estate
Real estate
Real estate
is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings, or housing."[1] It is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand.Contents1 Residential real estate 2 Sales and marketing 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksResidential real estate Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure that is available for occupation or for non-business purposes.[2] Residences can be classified by if and how they are connected to neighbouring residences and land
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Reinsurance
Reinsurance is insurance that is purchased by an insurance company. In the classic case, reinsurance allows insurance companies to remain solvent after major claims events, such as major disasters like hurricanes and wildfires. In addition to its basic role in risk management, reinsurance is sometimes used for tax mitigation and other reasons. The company that purchases the reinsurance policy is called a "ceding company" or "cedent" or "cedant" under most arrangements. The company issuing the reinsurance policy is referred simply as the "reinsurer". A company that purchases reinsurance pays a premium to the reinsurance company, who in exchange would pay a share of the claims incurred by the purchasing company. The reinsurer may be either a specialist reinsurance company, which only undertakes reinsurance business, or another insurance company
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Over-the-counter (finance)
Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-exchange trading is done directly between two parties, without the supervision of an exchange. It is contrasted with exchange trading, which occurs via exchanges. A stock exchange has the benefit of facilitating liquidity, providing transparency, and maintaining the current market price. In an OTC trade, the price is not necessarily published for the public. OTC trading, as well as exchange trading, occurs with commodities, financial instruments (including stocks), and derivatives of such products. Products traded on the exchange must be well standardized. This means that exchanged deliverables match a narrow range of quantity, quality, and identity which is defined by the exchange and identical to all transactions of that product. This is necessary for there to be transparency in trading. The OTC market does not have this limitation. They may agree on an unusual quantity, for example.[1] In OTC, market contracts are bilateral (i.e
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Forward Contract
In finance, a forward contract or simply a forward is a non-standardized contract between two parties to buy or to sell an asset at a specified future time at a price agreed upon today, making it a type of derivative instrument.[1][2] The party agreeing to buy the underlying asset in the future assumes a long position, and the party agreeing to sell the asset in the future assumes a short position. The price agreed upon is called the delivery price, which is equal to the forward price at the time the contract is entered into. The price of the underlying instrument, in whatever form, is paid before control of the instrument changes
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Spot Market
The spot market or cash market is a public financial market in which financial instruments or commodities are traded for immediate delivery. It contrasts with a futures market, in which delivery is due at a later date. In a spot market, settlement normally happens in T+2 working days, i.e., delivery of cash and commodity must be done after two working days of the trade date. A spot market can be through an exchange or over-the-counter (OTC). Spot markets can operate wherever the infrastructure exists to conduct the transaction.Contents1 Exchange 2 OTC 3 Examples3.1 Energy Spot4 See also 5 ReferencesExchange[edit] Securities (i.e. financial instruments) and commodities are traded on an exchange using, making, and possibly changing the current market price. OTC[edit] In the over the counter market, trades are based on contracts made directly between two parties, and not subject to the rules of an exchange
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Swap (finance)
A swap is a derivative contract where two parties exchange financial instruments.[1] Most swaps are derivatives in which two counterparties exchange cash flows of one party's financial instrument for those of the other party's financial instrument.[1] The benefits in question depend on the type of financial instruments involved. For example, in the case of a swap involving two bonds, the benefits in question can be the periodic interest (coupon) payments associated with such bonds. Specifically, two counterparties agree to exchange one stream of cash flows against another stream. These streams are called the legs of the swap
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Financial Market Participants
There are two basic financial market participant categories[citation needed], Investor vs. Speculator and Institutional vs. Retail[citation needed]. Action in financial markets by central banks is usually regarded as intervention rather than participation.Contents1 Supply side vs. demand side 2 Investor vs. Speculator2.1 Investor 2.2 Speculation3 Institutional vs. Retail3.1 Institutional investor 3.2 Retail
Retail
investor4 See also 5 ReferencesSupply side vs. demand side[edit] A market participant may either be coming from the Supply Side, hence supplying excess money (in the form of investments) in favor of the demand side; or coming from the Demand Side, hence demanding excess money (in the form of borrowed equity) in favor of the Supply Side. This equation originated from Keynesian Advocates
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Expiration (options)
In finance, the expiration date of an option contract is the last date on which the holder of the option may exercise it according to its terms. In the case of options with "automatic exercise" the net value of the option is credited to the long and debited to the short position holders. Typically, exchange-traded option contracts expire according to a pre-determined calendar. For instance, for U.S. exchange-listed equity stock option contracts, the expiration date is always the Saturday that follows the third Friday of the month, unless that Friday is a market holiday, in which case the expiration is on Thursday right before that Friday. The clearing firm may automatically exercise by exception any option that is in the money at expiration to preserve its value for the holder of the option and at the same time, benefit from the commission fees collected from the account holder. However the holder or the holder's broker may request that the options are not exercised automatically
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Financial Regulation
Financial regulation
Financial regulation
is a form of regulation or supervision, which subjects financial institutions to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to maintain the integrity of the financial system. This may be handled by either a government or non-government organization
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Clearing (finance)
In banking and finance, clearing denotes all activities from the time a commitment is made for a transaction until it is settled. This process turns the promise of payment (for example, in the form of a cheque or electronic payment request) into the actual movement of money from one account to another. Clearing houses were formed to facilitate such transactions among banks.Contents1 Description 2 History2.1 Cheque
Cheque
clearing 2.2 Securities clearing 2.3 Derivatives clearing3 United States clearing system 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDescription[edit] In trading, clearing is necessary because the speed of trades is much faster than the cycle time for completing the underlying transaction. It involves the management of post-trading, pre-settlement credit exposures to ensure that trades are settled in accordance with market rules, even if a buyer or seller should become insolvent prior to settlement
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