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Sthaviravāda
The Sthavira nikāya ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"Sect of the Elders"; traditional Chinese: 上座部; ; pinyin: Shàngzuò Bù) was one of the early Buddhist schools. They split from the majority Mahāsāṃghikas at the time of the Second Buddhist council.[1]Contents1 Scholarly views1.1 Origin 1.2 Language 1.3 Legacy2 Relationship to Theravāda2.1 Modern scholarly accounts 2.2 Ancient Indian scholarly accounts 2.3 Theravādin accounts3 See also 4 References 5 External linksScholarly views[edit] Origin[edit] The Sthavira nikāya ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"Sect of the Elders"; traditional Chinese: 上座部; ; pinyin: Shàngzuò Bù) was one of the early Buddhist schools
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Early Buddhist Texts
Early Buddhist Texts (EBTs) or Early Buddhist Literature refers to the parallel texts shared by the Early Buddhist schools, including the first four Pali Nikayas, some Vinaya material like the Patimokkhas of the different Buddhist schools as well as the Chinese Āgama literature.[1][2] Besides the large collections in Pali and Chinese, there are also fragmentary collections of EBT materials in Sanskrit, Khotanese, Tibetan and Gāndhārī. The modern study of early pre-sectarian Buddhism often relies on comparative scholarship using these various early Buddhist sources.[3] Some scholars such as Richard Gombrich and A.K
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Paisaci
Paishachi (IAST: Paiśācī) is a largely unattested literary language of the middle kingdoms of India mentioned in Prakrit
Prakrit
and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity. It is found grouped with the Prakrit
Prakrit
languages, with which it shares some linguistic similarities, but is not considered a spoken Prakrit
Prakrit
by the grammarians because it was purely a literary language, but also due to its archaicism.[3]Contents1 Identity 2 Literature 3 See also 4 ReferencesIdentity[edit] The etymology of the name suggests that it is spoken by piśācas, "ghouls". In works of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poetics such as Daṇḍin's Kavyadarsha, it is also known by the name of Bhūtabhāṣa, an epithet which can be interpreted either as a "dead language" (i.e. with no surviving speakers), or as "a language spoken by the dead" (i.e
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Mulasarvastivada
The Mūlasarvāstivāda (Sanskrit; traditional Chinese: 根本說一切有部; ; pinyin: Gēnběn Shuō Yīqièyǒu Bù) was one of the early Buddhist schools of India
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Vaibhāṣika
The Vaibhāṣika was an early Buddhist subschool formed by adherents of the Mahāvibhāṣa Śāstra, comprising the orthodox Kasmiri branch of the Sarvāstivāda school. The Vaibhāṣika-Sarvāstivāda, which had by far the most "comprehensive edifice of doctrinal systematics" of the early Buddhist schools,[1] was widely influential in India and beyond.[2] The school was originally of a mystical nature, later developing into more materialistic concerns with a focus upon Materialism
Materialism
and 'existent phenomena' (Tibetan: yod-pa). The key tenets of this school are "that no mental concept can be formed except through direct contact between the mind, via the senses, such as sight, touch, taste, etc., and external objects".[3] Berzin (2007) elaborates this further:Vaibhashika asserts sensory nonconceptual cognition of an object through direct contact with it, without the medium of a mental aspect of the object
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Vibhajyavāda
Vibhajyavāda (Sanskrit; Pāli: Vibhajjavāda; traditional Chinese: 分別說部; ; pinyin: fēnbiéshuō-bù) was a group of Sthavira Buddhist schools of early Buddhism, who rejected the Sarvastivada teachings at the Third Buddhist council (ca. 250 BCE).Contents1 Nomenclature and etymology 2 History 3 Sectarian views 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksNomenclature and etymology[edit] The word Vibhajyavāda may be parsed into vibhajya, loosely meaning "dividing", "analyzing" and vāda holding the semantic field: "doctrine", "teachings".[1] According to Andrew Skilton, the analysis of phenomena (Skt
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Theravada
Theravāda
Theravāda
(/ˌθɛrəˈvɑːdə/; Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism
Buddhism
that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
as its doctrinal core
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Sangha
Sangha
Sangha
(Pali: saṅgha; Sanskrit: saṃgha; Sinhalese: සංඝයා; Thai: พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்; Chinese: 僧伽; pinyin: Sēngjiā[1]; Wylie: dge 'dun[2]) is a word in Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism
Buddhism
to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns). These communities are traditionally referred to as the bhikkhu-sangha or bhikkhuni-sangha
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Buton Rinchen Drub
Butön Rinchen Drup (Tibetan: བུ་སྟོན་རིན་ཆེན་གྲུབ་, Wylie: bu ston rin chen grub), (1290–1364), 11th Abbot of Shalu Monastery, was a 14th-century Sakya master and Tibetan Buddhist leader. Shalu was the first of the major monasteries to be built by noble families of the Tsang dynasty during Tibet's great revival of Buddhism, and was an important center of the Sakya tradition. Butön was not merely a capable administrator but he is remembered to this very day as a prodigious scholar and writer and is Tibet's most celebrated historian.Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 Sources 4 Further reading 5 External linksBiography[edit] Buton was born in 1290, "to a family associated with a monastery named Sheme Gomne (shad smad sgom gnas) in the Tropu (khro phu) area of Tsang ... [his] father was a prominent Nyingma Lama named Drakton Gyeltsen Pelzang (brag ston rgyal btshan dpal bzang, d.u.)
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Prakrit
The Prakrits (Sanskrit: प्राकृती prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda, Jain Prakrit: pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages.[2][3] The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it
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Apabhraṃśa
Apabhranśa (Sanskrit: अपभ्रंश, IPA: [əpəbʱrən'ʃə], Prakrit: Avahansa) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages. In Indology, it is used as an umbrella term for the dialects forming the transition[1] between the late Middle and the early Modern Indo-Aryan languages, spanning the period between the 6th and 13th centuries CE
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Dharmaguptaka
The Dharmaguptaka
Dharmaguptaka
(Sanskrit; Chinese: 法藏部; pinyin: Fǎzàng bù) are one of the eighteen or twenty early Buddhist schools, depending on the source. They are said to have originated from another sect, the Mahīśāsakas. The Dharmaguptakas had a prominent role in early Central Asian and Chinese Buddhism, and their Prātimokṣa
Prātimokṣa
(monastic rules for bhikṣus and bhikṣuṇīs) are still in effect in East Asian countries to this day, including China, Vietnam, Korea, and Japan
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Sarvāstivāda
The Sarvāstivāda (Sanskrit; Chinese: 說一切有部; pinyin: Shuō Yīqièyǒu Bù) were an early school of Buddhism
Buddhism
that held to the existence of all dharmas in the past, present and future, the "three times".[1] The Sarvāstivādins were one of the most influential Buddhist monastic groups, flourishing throughout Northwest India, Northern India, and Central Asia
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Vatsīputrīya
The Pudgalavāda (Sanskrit; Chinese: 補特伽羅論者; pinyin: Bǔtèjiāluō Lùnzhě) or "Personalist" school of Buddhism, was a grouping of early Buddhist schools that separated from the Sthavira nikāya around 280 BCE. Prominent groups classified as Pudgalavāda include the Vātsīputrīya nikāya and the Saṃmitīya nikāya.Contents1 Pudgala or "person" 2 Criticisms of the pudgala theory 3 Relationship to the Saṃmitīya 4 Notes 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 External linksPudgala or "person"[edit] The Pudgalavādins asserted that while there is no ātman, there is a pudgala or "person", which is neither the same as nor different from the skandhas. The "person" was their method of accounting for karma, rebirth, and nirvana
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