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Stephanus Of Byzantium
STEPHEN OF BYZANTIUM, also known as STEPHANUS BYZANTINUS (Greek : Στέφανος Βυζάντιος; fl. 6th century AD), was the author of an important geographical dictionary entitled Ethnica (Ἐθνικά). Of the dictionary itself only meagre fragments survive, but we possess an epitome compiled by one HERMOLAUS, not otherwise identified. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 The Ethnica * 3 Editions * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading LIFE Byzantium
Byzantium
during Stephanus lifetime Nothing is known about the life of Stephanus, except that he was a grammarian at Constantinople
Constantinople
, and lived after the time of Arcadius and Honorius , and before that of Justinian II
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Claudius Salmasius
CLAUDIUS SALMASIUS is the Latin
Latin
name of CLAUDE SAUMAISE (15 April 1588 – 3 September 1653), a French classical scholar . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 Legacy * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links LIFE Claudius Salmasius
Claudius Salmasius
Salmasius was born at Semur-en-Auxois
Semur-en-Auxois
in Burgundy . His father, a counsellor of the parlement of Dijon
Dijon
, sent him, at the age of sixteen, to Paris, where he became intimate with Isaac Casaubon (1559–1614). In 1606 he went to the University of Heidelberg
University of Heidelberg
, where he studied under the jurist Denis Godefroy
Denis Godefroy
, and devoted himself to the classics, influenced by the librarian Jan Gruter . Here he embraced Protestantism
Protestantism
, the religion of his mother
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Lucas Holstenius
LUCAS HOLSTENIUS, born LUKAS HOLSTE (1596 – February 2, 1661), was a German Catholic
Catholic
humanist , geographer and historian . LIFEBorn at Hamburg
Hamburg
in 1596, he studied at the gymnasium of Hamburg, and later at Leyden University, where he was closely acquainted with some of the most famous scholars of the age, including Johannes Meursius , Daniel Heinsius and Philip Cluverius , whom in 1618 he accompanied on his travels in Italy and Sicily, thus giving him a taste for the study of geography. Disappointed at his failure on his return to obtain a post in the gymnasium of his native Hamburg, he left Germany for good. Having spent two years from 1622 in England, at Oxford
Oxford
and London
London
, gathering materials for his Geographi Minores, he then proceeded to Paris
Paris

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Karl Wilhelm Dindorf
KARL WILHELM DINDORF (Latin : Guilielmus Dindorfius; 2 January 1802 – 1 August 1883) was a German classical scholar. He was born and died at Leipzig
Leipzig
. From his earliest years he showed a strong taste for classical studies, and after completing F Invernizi's edition of Aristophanes
Aristophanes
at an early age, and editing several grammarians and rhetoricians , was in 1828 appointed extraordinary professor of literary history in his native city. Disappointed at not obtaining the ordinary professorship when it became vacant in 1833, he resigned his post in the same year, and devoted himself entirely to study and literary work. His attention had at first been chiefly given to Athenaeus
Athenaeus
, whom he edited in 1827, and to the Greek dramatists, all of whom he edited separately and combined in his Poetae scenici Graeci (1830 and later editions)
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Public Domain
The legal term PUBLIC DOMAIN refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or by their copyright term expiring. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms , NIH 's ImageJ , and the CIA
CIA
's World Factbook
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Aldus Manutius
ALDUS PIUS MANUTIUS also known as Aldo Manuzio (Italian : Aldo Pio Manuzio; ca. 1452 – February 6, 1515) was a Venetian humanist , scholar, and educator, who became a printer and publisher when he helped found the Aldine Press in Venice
Venice
, 1495. :22 He is also known as " Aldus
Aldus
Manutius the Elder" to distinguish him from his grandson, " Aldus Manutius the Younger ". Manutius "attempted to make classical Greek works accessible which before him had never been published in their original language"
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Augustus Meineke
JOHANN ALBRECHT FRIEDRICH AUGUST MEINEKE (also Augustus Meineke; German: ; December 8, 1790 – December 12, 1870), German classical scholar , was born at Soest in the Duchy of Westphalia
Duchy of Westphalia
. He was father-in-law to philologist Theodor Bergk . He obtained his education at the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
as a student of Johann Gottfried Jakob Hermann . After holding an educational post at Danzig (now Gdańsk , Poland
Poland
), he was director of the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin
Berlin
from 1826 to 1856. In 1830 he became a member of the Berlin
Berlin
Academy . He died in Berlin
Berlin
on 12 December 1870. He excelled in conjectural criticism, the comic writers and Alexandrine poets being his favourite authors
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Pierre Séguier
PIERRE SéGUIER (French: ; 28 May 1588 – 28 January 1672) was a French statesman, chancellor of France from 1635. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early years * 1.2 Career * 2 Culture * 3 References BIOGRAPHYEARLY YEARSSéguier was born in Paris
Paris
to a prominent legal family originating in Quercy
Quercy
. His grandfather, Pierre Séguier
Pierre Séguier
(1504–1580), was président à mortier in the parlement of Paris
Paris
from 1554 to 1576, and the chancellor's father, Jean Séguier, a seigneur d'Autry, was civil lieutenant of Paris
Paris
at the time of his death in 1596. Pierre was brought up by his uncle, Antoine Séguier, president and mortier in the parlement, and became master of requests in 1620. From 1621 to 1624 he was intendant of Guyenne, where he became closely allied with the duc d\'Épernon
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Aldine Press
ALDINE PRESS was the printing office started by Aldus Manutius
Aldus Manutius
in 1494 in Venice
Venice
, from which were issued the celebrated Aldine editions of the classics (Latin and Greek masterpieces plus a few more modern works). The first book that was dated and printed under his name appeared in 1495. The Aldine Press
Aldine Press
is famous in the history of typography , among other things, for the introduction of italics . The press was the first to issue printed books in the small octavo size, similar to that of a modern paperback, and like that intended for portability and ease of reading. :82-84 According to Curt Buhler, the press issued 132 books during twenty years of activity under Aldus. After Aldus’ death in 1515 the press was continued by his wife, Maria and her father, Andrea Torresani, until his son, Paulus Manutius (1512–1574) took over
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA ELEVENTH EDITION (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain , but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tens of thousands of its articles were copied directly into , where they still can be found
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William Smith (lexicographer)
SIR WILLIAM SMITH (20 May 1813 – 7 October 1893) was an English lexicographer . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 2.1 Publications * 3 Honours and death * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFESmith was born in Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. He attended the Madras House school of John Allen in Hackney. Originally destined for a theological career, he instead was articled to a solicitor. In his spare time he taught himself classics , and when he entered University College London
University College London
he carried off both the Greek and Latin prizes. He was entered at Gray\'s Inn in 1830, but gave up his legal studies for a post at University College School and began to write on classical subjects. CAREERSmith next turned his attention to lexicography
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The SYSTèME UNIVERSITAIRE DE DOCUMENTATION or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library * 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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LIBRIS
LIBRIS (Library Information System) is a Swedish national union catalogue maintained by the National Library of Sweden
Sweden
in Stockholm
Stockholm
. It is possible to freely search about 6.5 million titles nationwide. In addition to bibliographic records, one for each book or publication, LIBRIS also contains an authority file of people. For each person there is a record connecting name, birth and occupation with a unique identifier. The MARC Code for the Swedish Union Catalog is SE-LIBR, normalized: selibr. The development of LIBRIS can be traced to the mid-1960s. While rationalization of libraries had been an issue for two decades after World War II, it was in 1965 that a government committee published a report on the use of computers in research libraries. The government budget of 1965 created a research library council (Forskningsbiblioteksrådet, FBR)
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