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Stanisław Leszczyński
Stanisław I Leszczyński
Leszczyński
(Polish pronunciation: [staˈɲiswaf lɛʂˈtʂɨɲskʲi]; also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Lithuanian: Stanislovas Leščinskis, French: Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine
Duke of Lorraine
and a count of the Holy Roman Empire. Stanisław was born into a powerful magnate family of Greater Poland, and he had the opportunity to travel to western Europe in his youth. In 1702 King Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
marched into the country as part of a continuing series of conflicts between the powers of northern Europe. Charles forced the Polish nobility
Polish nobility
to depose Poland’s king, Augustus II the Strong, and then placed Stanisław on the throne (1704). The early 18th century was a period of great problems and turmoil for Poland
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Lithuanian Language
Lithuanian (Lithuanian: lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language
Baltic language
spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and the official language of Lithuania
Lithuania
as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.9 million[3] native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. As a Baltic language, Lithuanian is closely related to neighboring Latvian and more distantly to Slavic and other Indo-European languages. It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Roman Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Anglicization
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.[1][2] It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation. One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves). Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the widespread domestication of foreign words that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning
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Latinisation Of Names
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Grand Duke Of Lithuania
Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 Lithuania
Lithuania
(/ˌlɪθjuˈeɪniə/ ( listen);[11] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia
Latvia
to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland
Poland
to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
(a Russian exclave) to the southwest. Lithuania
Lithuania
has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017[update], and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Lithuanians
Lithuanians
are a Baltic people
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Greater Poland
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska ([vʲɛlkɔˈpɔlska] ( listen)) (German: Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief city is Poznań. The boundaries of Greater Poland
Poland
have varied somewhat throughout history. Since the Middle Ages, the proper (właściwa) or exact/strict (ścisła) Wielkopolska (often referred to as ziemia, meaning "land") included the Poznań
Poznań
and Kalisz
Kalisz
voivodeships. In the wider sense (as dzielnica, i.e. region), it encompassed also Sieradz, Łęczyca, Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław
Inowrocław
voivodeships (more eastward). One another meaning (as province) included also Mazovia
Mazovia
and Royal Prussia. After the Partitions of Poland, Greater Poland
Poland
was often identified with the Grand Duchy of Posen
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Warsaw
From top, left to right: Warsaw
Warsaw
Skyline Royal Baths Park Royal Route Staszic Palace
Staszic Palace
and Copernicus Monument Warsaw
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Western Europe
Western Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe
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Sejm
Government (239)     Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(238)      Independents (1)[a] Confidence and supply (8)     Free and Solidary
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Northern Europe
Northern Europe
Europe
is the general term for the geographical region in Europe
Europe
that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Nations usually included within this region are Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, and occasionally Ireland, Britain, northern Germany, northern Belarus
Belarus
and northwest Russia. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as climate and ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps
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Polish Nobility
The szlachta ([ˈʂlaxta] ( listen), exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia
Samogitia
(both after Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
became a sin
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Battle Of Poltava
Decisive Russian victoryDestruction of the Carolean army Loss of Cossack Hetmanate
Cossack Hetmanate
autonomy Charles XII of Sweden
Sweden
relocates to Ottoman Empire Turning point in the Great Northern War; decline of the Swedish Empire,
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