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St Andrews Castle
St Andrew's Castle is a picturesque ruin located in the coastal Royal Burgh
Burgh
of St Andrews in Fife, Scotland. The castle sits on a rocky promontory overlooking a small beach called Castle Sands and the adjoining North Sea. There has been a castle standing at the site since the times of Bishop Roger
Bishop Roger
(1189-1202), son of the Earl of Leicester. It housed the burgh’s wealthy and powerful bishops while St Andrews served as the ecclesiastical centre of Scotland
Scotland
during the years before the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. In their Latin charters, the Archbishops of St Andrews wrote of the castle as their Palace, signing, "apud Palatium nostrum."[1] The castle's grounds are now maintained by Historic Scotland
Scotland
as a scheduled monument. [2] The site is entered through a visitor centre with displays on its history
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Catholic
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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James II Of Scotland
James II (16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460), who reigned as king of Scots from 1437 on, was the son of King James I and Joan Beaufort. Nothing is known of his early life, but by his first birthday his twin and only brother, Alexander, who was also the older twin, had died, thus making James the heir apparent and Duke of Rothesay. On 21 February 1437, James I was assassinated and the six-year-old Duke of Rothesay immediately succeeded him as James II. In 1449, nineteen-year-old James married fifteen-year-old Mary of Guelders, daughter of the Duke of Gelderland. She bore him seven children, six of whom survived into adulthood. Subsequently, the relations between Flanders
Flanders
and Scotland
Scotland
improved. James's nickname, Fiery Face, referred to a conspicuous vermilion birthmark on his face which appears to have been deemed by contemporaries an outward sign of a fiery temper.[1] James was a politic, and singularly successful king
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Robert I Of Scotland
In office 1298–1300 Serving with John III Comyn and William de Lamberton
William de Lamberton
(from 1301)Preceded by William WallaceSucceeded by Ingram de UmfravilleStatue of Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
at the Bannockburn battle fieldRobert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
(Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; Early Scots: Robert Brus; Latin: Robertus Brussius), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, and eventually led Scotland during the First War of Scottish Independence
First War of Scottish Independence
against England
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Andrew Moray
First War of Scottish Independence:Battle of Stirling
Stirling
BridgeAndrew Moray
Moray
(Norman French: Andreu de Moray; Latin: Andreas de Moravia), also known as Andrew de Moray, Andrew of Moray, or Andrew Murray, an esquire,[1] was prominent in the Scottish Wars of Independence. He led the rising in north Scotland
Scotland
in the summer of 1297 against the occupation by King Edward I of England, successfully regaining control of the area for King John Balliol. He subsequently merged his forces with those led by William Wallace
William Wallace
and jointly led the combined army to victory at the Battle of Stirling
Stirling
Bridge
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Regent Of Scotland
A regent is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.[1] Currently there is only one ruling Regency in the world, sovereign Liechtenstein
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David II Of Scotland
David II (Medieval Gaelic: Daibhidh a Briuis, Modern Gaelic: Dàibhidh Bruis; Norman French: Dauid de Brus, Early Scots: Dauid Brus; 5 March 1324 – 22 February 1371) was King of Scots
King of Scots
from 1329 until his death, and the last male of the House of Bruce. Although David spent long periods in exile or captivity, he managed to resist English attempts to annex his kingdom, and left the monarchy in a strong position.Contents1 Early life 2 Reign2.1 Exile in France 2.2 Captivity in England 2.3 Return to Scotland3 Death 4 Fictional portrayals 5 Ancestry 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingEarly life[edit] David II was the elder and only surviving son of Robert I of Scotland and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. He was born on 5 March 1324 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife
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Walter Trail
Walter Trail
Walter Trail
(† 1401) was a late 14th century Bishop of St. Andrews. He appears as an official in the Bishopric of Glasgow in 1378, as a Magister Artium and a Licentiate in Canon and civil law. In 1380, he has a Doctorate
Doctorate
in Canon and Civil Law, as well as a Papal chaplain and auditor. In this year, Pope
Pope
Clement VII (an "anti-Pope") granted him the deanery of the Bishopric of Dunkeld. He became treasurer of the Bishopric of Glasgow in either 1381 or 1382. On 29 November 1385, the Pope
Pope
provided him to the vacant Bishopric of St. Andrews, vacant because of the capture and death of the previous bishop-elect, Stephen de Pa. Walter Trail
Walter Trail
was an active bishop, and ardent defender of the rights of the church within Scotland. Walter constructed the castle at St. Andrews
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James I Of Scotland
James I (late July 1394 – 21 February 1437), the youngest of three sons, was born in Dunfermline Abbey
Dunfermline Abbey
to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond. By the time he was eight, both of his elder brothers were dead—Robert had died in infancy but David, Duke of Rothesay, died suspiciously in Falkland Palace
Falkland Palace
while being detained by his uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany. Although Albany was exonerated by parliament, fears for James's safety grew through the winter of 1405–1406 and plans were made to send him to France. In February 1406, James was accompanying nobles close to his father when they clashed with supporters of Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas, forcing the prince to take refuge in the castle of the Bass Rock, a small islet in the Firth of Forth
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Henry Wardlaw
Henry Wardlaw
Henry Wardlaw
(died 6 April 1440) was a Scottish church leader, Bishop of St Andrews
St Andrews
and founder of the University of St Andrews. Life[edit] He was a son of II Laird of Wilton Henry Wardlaw
Henry Wardlaw
who was b. 1318, and a nephew of Walter Wardlaw (d. 1390), Bishop of Glasgow, who is said to have been made a cardinal by the antipope Clement VII in 1381. Educated at the universities of Oxford and of Paris, Henry Wardlaw returned to Scotland in about 1385, and his influential connections obtained him several church benefices. He passed some time at Avignon, and it was while at the papal court that he was chosen Bishop of St Andrews; he was consecrated in 1403. Returning to Scotland, he acted as tutor to the future King James I of Scotland, and finished the work of restoring the cathedral at St Andrews
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James Kennedy (bishop)
James Kennedy (Scottish Gaelic: Seumas Ceanadach) (c. 1408–1465) was a 15th-century Bishop of Dunkeld and Bishop of St. Andrews, who participated in the Council of Florence
Council of Florence
and was the last man to govern the diocese of St. Andrews purely as bishop. One of the Gaelic clan of Carrick he became the principal figure in the government of the minority of King James II of Scotland
Scotland
as well as founder of St Salvator's College, St Andrews. He was the third and youngest son of Sir James Kennedy of Dunure, Ayrshire, and Princess Mary of Scotland, widow of the 1st Earl of Angus and second daughter of King Robert III of Scotland. His eldest brother was Gilbert Kennedy, 1st Lord Kennedy
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Prison
A prison,[a] also known as a correctional facility, jail,[b] gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center[c] (American English) or remand center[d] is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most commonly used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until they are brought to trial; those pleading or being found guilty of crimes at trial may be sentenced to a specified period of imprisonment. Besides their use for punishing crimes, jails and prisons are frequently used by authoritarian regimes against perceived opponents. In American English, prison and jail are often treated as having separate definitions. The term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, and are operated by the state or federal governments
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Battle Of Bannockburn
Coordinates: 56°05′31″N 3°54′54″W / 56.092°N 3.915°W / 56.092; -3.915Battle of BannockburnPart of the First War of Scottish IndependenceThis depiction from the Scotichronicon
Scotichronicon
(c.1440) is the earliest known image of the battle
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Bottle Dungeon
A dungeon is a room or cell in which prisoners are held, especially underground. Dungeons are generally associated with medieval castles, though their association with torture probably belongs more to the Renaissance period. An oubliette or bottle dungeon is a form of dungeon which is accessible only from a hatch or hole (an angstloch) in a high ceiling.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Features 4 In fiction 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingEtymology[edit] The word dungeon comes from French donjon (also spelled dongeon), which means "keep", the main tower of a castle. The first recorded instance of the word in English was near the beginning of the 14th century when it held the same meaning as donjon
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Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke Of Albany
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
(Scottish Gaelic: Muireadhach Stiubhart) (1362 – 24 May 1425) was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389, he became Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402, he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England. After his father died in 1420, and while the future King James I of Scotland was himself held captive in England, Stewart served as Governor of Scotland
Governor of Scotland
until 1424, when James was finally ransomed and returned to Scotland. However, in 1425, soon after James's coronation, Stewart was arrested, found guilty of treason, and executed, along with two of his sons. His only surviving heir was James the Fat, who escaped to Antrim, Ireland, where he died in 1429
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Archbishop
In Christianity, an archbishop (/ˌɑːrtʃˈbɪʃəp/, via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek ἀρχιεπίσκοπος, from ἀρχι-, "chief", and ἐπίσκοπος, "bishop")[1][2][3] is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title. Like popes, patriarchs, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, and suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops, priests (also called presbyters), and deacons
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