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Spiritual (music)
Spirituals (or Negro spirituals)[1][2] are generally Christian songs that were created by African Americans.[3] Spirituals were originally an oral tradition that imparted Christian values while also describing the hardships of slavery.[4] Although spirituals were originally unaccompanied monophonic (unison) songs, they are best known today in harmonized choral arrangements
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Spirituals (album)
Spirituals is an album by David Murray released on the Japanese DIW label. It was released in 1988 and features seven quartet performances by Murray with Fred Hopkins, Dave Burrell
Dave Burrell
and Ralph Peterson Jr..Contents1 Reception 2 Track listing 3 Personnel 4 ReferencesReception[edit] The Allmusic
Allmusic
review by Scott Yanow awarded the album 3 stars stating "David Murray mostly sticks to spirituals on this Japanese import, a quartet outing with pianist Dave Burrell, bassist Fred Hopkins and drummer Ralph Peterson, but that does not mean that all of the improvising is mellow and melodic. There are some peaceful moments on tunes such as "Amazing Grace" and a spirited "Down by the Riverside," but Murray's playing is so violent on "Abel's Blissed Out Blues" as to be almost satirical
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Lullaby
A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music that is usually played for (or sung to) children. The purposes of lullabies vary. In some societies they are used to pass down cultural knowledge or tradition. In addition, lullabies are often used for the developing of communication skills, indication of emotional intent, maintenance of infants' undivided attention, modulation of infants' arousal, and regulation of behavior.[1] Perhaps one of the most important uses of lullabies is as a sleep aid for infants.[2] As a result, the music is often simple and repetitive
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Moses
Moses
Moses
(/ˈmoʊzɪz, -zɪs/)[2][Note 1] was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, and later in life became the leader of the Israelites
Israelites
and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah
Torah
from Heaven is traditionally attributed
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The Exodus
The Exodus[a] is the founding myth of Israel, telling how the Israelites
Israelites
were delivered from slavery by their god Yahweh
Yahweh
and therefore belong to him through the Mosaic covenant.[1][b] Spread over the books of Exodus, Leviticus
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Fraticelli
The Fraticelli
Fraticelli
("Little Brethren") or Spiritual Franciscans were extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi, especially with regard to poverty, and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status. They were thus forced into open revolt against the whole authority of the Church and were declared heretical in 1296 by Boniface VIII. The name Fraticelli
Fraticelli
is used for various heretical sects,[1] which appeared in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, principally in Italy, that separated from the Franciscan Order
Franciscan Order
on account of the disputes concerning poverty. The Apostolics (also known as Pseudo-Apostles or Apostolic Brethren) are excluded from the category, because admission to the Order of St. Francis was expressly denied to their founder, Gerard Segarelli
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Song Of The Free
"Song of the Free" is a song of the Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
written in 1860 about a man fleeing slavery in Tennessee
Tennessee
by escaping to Canada via the Underground Railroad. It is composed to the tune of "Oh! Susanna". Lyrics[edit]A monograph of lyrics for Song of the Free. From Library and Archives Canada.The song alludes to, and explicitly states, the lack of freedom experienced by African Americans, and of their servitude to masters who controlled them. It highlights the dangers they were willing to face in order to escape enslavement, including death. Every stanza ends with a reference to Canada
Canada
as the land "where colored men are free"
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Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States
United States
during the early to
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Follow The Drinking Gourd
"Follow the Drinking Gourd" is an African American folk song first published in 1928. The Drinking Gourd is another name for the Big Dipper asterism. Folklore has it that fugitive slaves in the United States used it as a point of reference so they would not get lost.[1][2] According to legend, the song was used by a conductor of the Underground Railroad, called Peg Leg Joe, to guide some fugitive slaves. While the song may possibly refer to some lost fragment of history, the origin and context remain a mystery. A more recent source challenges the authenticity of the claim that the song was used to help slaves escape to the North and to freedom.[3]Contents1 History1.1 Texas Folklore Society and H. B. Parks 1.2 Lee Hays 1.3 Randy Sparks
Randy Sparks
/ John Woodum2 Meaning 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksHistory[edit] Texas Folklore Society and H. B. Parks[edit] Follow the Drinking Gourd was collected by H. B
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Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
(born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; c. February 1818[4] – February 20, 1895[5]) was an African-American
African-American
social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his oratory[6] and incisive antislavery writings. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens.[7][8] Northerners at the time found it hard to believe that such a great orator had once been a slave.[9] Douglass wrote several autobiographies
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Choctaw Nation Of Oklahoma
The Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation (Choctaw: Chahta Yakni) (officially referred to as the Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation of Oklahoma) is a Native American territory and a federally recognized tribe with a tribal jurisdictional area comprising twelve tribal districts. The Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation maintains a special relationship with both the United States and Oklahoma governments. As of 2011, the tribe has 223,279 enrolled members, of which 84,670 live within the state of Oklahoma[2] and 41,616 live within the Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation's jurisdiction.[3] A total of 233,126 people live within these boundaries. The tribal jurisdictional area is 10,864 square miles (28,140 km2).[4] The tribe has jurisdiction over its own members. The chief of the Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation is Gary Batton, who took office on April 29, 2014, after the resignation of Gregory E
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Thirteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865. The amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward
William H. Seward
proclaimed its adoption. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War. Since the American Revolution, states had divided into states that allowed and states that prohibited slavery
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Fisk University
Fisk University
Fisk University
is a private historically black university in Nashville, Tennessee. The university was founded in 1866 and its 40-acre (160,000 m2) campus is a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1930, Fisk was the first African-American institution to gain accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Accreditations for specialized programs soon followed.Contents1 History 2 Campus 3 Music, art, and literature collections3.1 Alfred Stieglitz
Alfred Stieglitz
Collection4 Science programs4.1 Fisk-Vanderbilt Bridge Program5 Ranking 6 Athletics 7 Notable alumni 8 Notable faculty 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]University namesake Clinton B. FiskA class c
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Theodore F. Seward
Theodore Frelinghuysen Seward (January 25, 1835 – August 30, 1902) was the Founder of the Brotherhood of Christian Unity and the Don't Worry Club.[1]Contents1 Life and career 2 Publications 3 Notes 4 ReferencesLife and career[edit] He was born in Florida, Orange County, New York.[2] (William H. Seward was his second cousin.)[3] He left his father's farm at the age of eighteen to study music under Lowell Mason
Lowell Mason
and Thomas Hastings, became organist of a church in New London, Connecticut, in 1857, and in Rochester, New York, in 1859, moved to New York City
New York City
in 1867, and conducted the "Musical Pioneer," and afterward the New York " Musical Gazette." He first became interested in the tonic sol-fa system during a visit to England in 1869, and on his return worked to introduce the method without adopting the notation
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Mark Twain
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. Among his novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
(1875) and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(1885),[2] the latter often called "The Great American Novel". Twain was raised in Hannibal, Missouri, which later provided the setting for Tom Sawyer
Tom Sawyer
and Huckleberry Finn. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and then worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He later became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada
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Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston
(January 7, 1891[1][2] – January 28, 1960) was an American novelist, short story writer, folklorist, and anthropologist known for her contributions to African-American
African-American
literature, her portrayal of racial struggles in the American South, and works documenting her research on Haitian voodoo.[3] Of Hurston's four novels and more than 50 published short stories, plays, and essays, she is best known for her 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama, and moved to Eatonville, Florida, with her family in 1894. Eatonville would become the setting for many of her stories and is now the site of the Zora! Festival, held each year in Hurston's honor.[4] In her early career, Hurston conducted anthropological and ethnographic research while attending Barnard College.[5] While in New York she became a central figure of the Harlem Renaissance
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