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Sphinx
A sphinx (Ancient Greek: Σφίγξ [spʰíŋks], Boeotian: Φίξ [pʰíːks], plural sphinxes or sphinges) is a mythical creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion. In Greek tradition, it has the head of a human, the haunches of a lion, and sometimes the wings of a bird. It is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Those who cannot answer its riddle suffer a fate typical in such mythological stories, as they are killed and eaten by this ravenous monster.[1] This deadly version of a sphinx appears in the myth and drama of Oedipus.[2] Unlike the Greek sphinx, which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man (an androsphinx). In addition, the Egyptian sphinx was viewed as benevolent, but having a ferocious strength similar to the malevolent Greek version and both were thought of as guardians often flanking the entrances to temples.[3] In European decorative art, the sphinx enjoyed a major revival during the Renaissance
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Sheep
The sheep ( Ovis
Ovis
aries) is a quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name "sheep" applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis
Ovis
aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe (/juː/), an intact male as a ram or occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether, and a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep
Sheep
are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece, meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk. A sheep's wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is usually harvested by shearing
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Bird
Birds (Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Pyxis
Pyxis[a] is a small and faint constellation in the southern sky. Abbreviated from Pyxis Nautica, its name is Latin for a mariner's compass (contrasting with Circinus, which represents a draftsman's compasses). Pyxis was introduced by Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille in the 18th century, and is counted among the 88 modern constellations. The plane of the Milky Way passes through Pyxis. A faint constellation, its three brightest stars—Alpha, Beta and Gamma Pyxidis—are in a rough line. At magnitude 3.68, Alpha is the constellation's brightest star. It is a blue-white star approximately 880 light-years (270 parsecs) distant and around 22,000 times as luminous as the Sun.Pyxis is positioned just south of the star Alphard in the constellation Hydra midway between Virgo and Cancer
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Thebes (Egypt)
Thebes
Thebes
may refer to one of the following places:Thebes, Egypt, Thebes
Thebes
of the Hundred Gates, one-time capital of the New Kingdom of Egypt Thebes, Greece, a city in Boeotia Phthioti
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Alabaster
Alabaster
Alabaster
is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder. Archaeologists and the stone processing industry use the word differently from geologists. The former use is in a wider sense that includes varieties of two different minerals: the fine-grained massive type of gypsum[1] and the fine-grained banded type of calcite.[2] Geologists define alabaster only as the gypsum type.[2] Chemically, gypsum is a hydrous sulfate of calcium, while calcite is a carbonate of calcium.[3] Both types of alabaster have similar properties. They are usually lightly coloured, translucent, and soft stones
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Granite
Granite
Granite
( /ˈɡrænɪt/) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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18th Dynasty
The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
(notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom
New Kingdom
period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC. It boasts several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter
Howard Carter
in 1922. This dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid
Thutmosid
Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose. Famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
(c. 1479 BC–1458 BC), longest-reigning woman-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(c
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Stele
A stele (/ˈstiːli/ STEE-lee)[Note 1] is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in the ancient world as a monument. Grave
Grave
steles were often used for funerary or commemorative purposes. Stelae as slabs of stone would also be used as ancient Greek and Roman government notices or as boundary markers to mark borders or property lines. The surface of the stele usually has text, ornamentation, or both. The ornamentation may be inscribed, carved in relief, or painted. Traditional Western gravestones may technically be considered the modern equivalent of ancient stelae, though the term is very rarely applied in this way
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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Nevalı Çori
Nevalı Çori
Nevalı Çori
(Turkish: Nevali Çori) was an early Neolithic settlement on the middle Euphrates, in Şanlıurfa Province, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The site is known for having some of the world's oldest known temples and monumental sculpture. Together with the earlier site of Göbekli Tepe, it has revolutionised scientific understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic
Neolithic
period
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Gobekli Tepe
Göbekli Tepe
Göbekli Tepe
(pronounced [ɟøbekˈli teˈpe][1]), Turkish for "Potbelly Hill",[2] is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia
Anatolia
Region of Turkey, approximately 12 km (7 mi) northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. The tell has a height of 15 m (49 ft) and is about 300 m (980 ft) in diameter.[3] It is approximately 760 m (2,490 ft) above sea level. The tell includes two phases of use believed to be of a social or ritual nature dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE. During the first phase, belonging to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
(PPNA), circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars were erected – the world's oldest known megaliths.[4] More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are currently known through geophysical surveys. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m (20 ft) and weighs up to 20 tons
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Nile River
The Nile
Nile
(Arabic: النيل‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר‬, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר‬, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world,[1] though some sources cite the Amazon River
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