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Spermiogenesis
Spermiogenesis
Spermiogenesis
is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is a more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Embryology
Embryology
Embryology
(from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Capacitation
Capacitation is the penultimate[1] step in the maturation of mammalian spermatozoa and is required to render them competent to fertilize an oocyte.[2] This step is a biochemical event; the sperm move normally and look mature prior to capacitation. In vivo, capacitation typically occurs after ejaculation into the female reproductive tract. In vitro, capacitation can occur by incubating sperm that have either undergone ejaculation or have been extracted from the epididymis in a defined medium for several hours. The uterus aids in the steps of capacitation by secreting sterol-binding albumin, lipoproteins, and proteolytic and glycosidasic enzymes such as heparin. Non-mammalian spermatozoa do not require this capacitation step and are ready to fertilize an oocyte immediately after release from the male
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University Of Lausanne
The University
University
of Lausanne
Lausanne
(UNIL, French: Université de Lausanne) in Lausanne, Switzerland
Switzerland
was founded in 1537 as a school of theology, before being made a university in 1890. Today about 13,500 students and 2,200 researchers study and work at the university. Approximately 1,500 international students attend the university (120 nationalities), which has a wide curriculum including exchange programs with world-renowned universities. Since 2005, the University
University
follows the requirements of the Bologna process. The 2011 Times Higher Education World University
University
Rankings[1] ranked the University
University
of Lausanne
Lausanne
116th globally
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Peristalsis
Peristalsis
Peristalsis
is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction. In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach) along the tract
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University Of Berne
A university (Latin: universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines
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Organelles
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers, but cannot be bound by one. The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as organs are to the body, hence organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive. Organelles are identified by microscopy, and can also be purified by cell fractionation. There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells
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University Of Fribourg
The University
University
of Fribourg
Fribourg
(French: Université de Fribourg; German: Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland.[2] The roots of the university can be traced back to 1580, when the notable Jesuit
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Male Internal Genitalia
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction. The reproductive organs together constitute the reproductive system. The testis in the male, and the ovary in the female, are called the primary sex organs.[1] The external sex organs – the genitals or genitalia, visible at birth in both sexes, and the internal sex organs are called the secondary sex organs.[1] Mosses, ferns, and some similar plants have gametangia for reproductive organs, which are part of the gametophyte.[2] The flowers of flowering plants produce pollen and egg cells, but the sex organs themselves are inside the gametophytes within the pollen and the ovule.[3] Coniferous plants likewise produce their sexually reproductive structures within the gametophytes contained within the cones and pollen
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Phagocytosed
In cell biology, phagocytosis (from Ancient Greek φαγεῖν (phagein) , meaning 'to devour', κύτος, (kytos) , meaning 'cell', and -osis, meaning 'process') is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome. It is distinct from other forms of endocytosis like pinocytosis that involves the internalization of extracellular liquids. Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax. In an organism's immune system, phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and cell debris
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryotic organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryotic organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.[1] The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which remains after exclusion the cell organelles and particles is groundplasm
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Centriole
In cell biology a centriole is a cylindrical cell structure[1] composed mainly of a protein called tubulin that is found in most eukaryotic cells. An associated pair of centrioles, surrounded by a shapeless mass of dense material, called the pericentriolar material, or PCM, makes up a compound structure called a centrosome.[1] Centrioles are present in the cells of most eukaryotes, for example those of animals. However, they are absent from conifers (pinophyta), flowering plants (angiosperms) and most fungi, and are only present in the male gametes of charophytes, bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, cycads, and ginkgo.[2][3] Most centrioles are made up of nine sets of microtubule triplets, arranged in a cylinder
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Protamine
Protamines are small, arginine-rich, nuclear proteins that replace histones late in the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and are believed essential for sperm head condensation and DNA stabilization. They may allow for denser packaging of DNA in the spermatozoon than histones, but they must be decompressed before the genetic data can be used for protein synthesis. However, in humans and maybe other primates, 10-15% of the sperm's genome is packaged by histones thought to bind genes that are essential for early embryonic development.[1]Contents1 Spermatogenesis 2 Medical uses 3 Examples3.1 Human 3.2 Fish4 Protamine structure 5 References 6 External linksSpermatogenesis[edit] During the formation of sperm, protamine binds to the phosphate backbone of DNA using the arginine-rich domain as an anchor. DNA is then folded into a toroid, an O-shaped structure, although the mechanism is not known
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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