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Spermiogenesis
SPERMIOGENESIS is the final stage of spermatogenesis , which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa . The spermatid is a more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria. All these components take part in forming the spermatozoon. CONTENTS* 1 Phases * 1.1 Golgi phase * 1.2 Cap/ Acrosome
Acrosome
phase * 1.3 Formation of Tail * 1.4 Maturation phase * 2 Spermiation * 3 References * 4 External links PHASES Complete diagram of a human spermatozoon The process of spermiogenesis is traditionally divided into four stages: the Golgi phase, the cap phase, formation of tail, and the maturation stage. GOLGI PHASEThe spermatids , which up until now have been mostly radially symmetrical , begin to develop polarity
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Capacitation
CAPACITATION is the penultimate step in the maturation of mammalian spermatozoa and is required to render them competent to fertilize an oocyte . This step is a biochemical event; the sperm move normally and look mature prior to capacitation. In vivo, capacitation typically occurs after ejaculation into the female reproductive tract . In vitro, capacitation can occur by incubating sperm that have either undergone ejaculation or have been extracted from the epididymis in a defined medium for several hours. The uterus aids in the steps of capacitation by secreting sterol-binding albumin , lipoproteins , and proteolytic and glycosidasic enzymes such as heparin. Non-mammalian spermatozoa do not require this capacitation step and are ready to fertilize an oocyte immediately after release from the male. After this capacitation, the sperm must undergo the final maturation step, activation, involving the acrosome reaction
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Peristalsis
PERISTALSIS is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction. In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract , smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food (called a bolus while in the esophagus and upper gastrointestinal tract and chyme in the stomach ) along the tract. Peristaltic movement comprises relaxation of circular smooth muscles, then their contraction behind the chewed material to keep it from moving backward, then longitudinal contraction to push it forward. Earthworms use a similar mechanism to drive their locomotion, and some modern machinery imitates this design. The word comes from New Latin
New Latin
and is derived from the Greek peristellein, "to wrap around," from peri-, "around" + stellein, "draw in, bring together; set in order"
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Organelles
In cell biology , an ORGANELLE (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/ ) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers . The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as organs are to the body , hence organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive . Organelles are identified by microscopy , and can also be purified by cell fractionation . There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells. While prokaryotes do not possess organelles per se, some do contain protein-based bacterial microcompartments , which are thought to act as primitive organelles
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Phagocytosed
In cell biology , PHAGOCYTOSIS (from Ancient Greek φαγεῖν (phagein), meaning 'to devour', κύτος, (kytos), meaning 'cell', and -osis, meaning 'process') is the process by which a cell —often a phagocyte or a protist —engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome . It is distinct from other forms of endocytosis like pinocytosis that involves the internalization of extracellular liquids. Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax . In an organism's immune system , phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and cell debris
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Embryology
EMBRYOLOGY (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo "; and -λογία, -logia ) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization , and development of embryos and fetuses . Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth, known as teratology . CONTENTS* 1 Embryonic development of animals * 1.1 Bilateria
Bilateria
* 1.1.1 Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila melanogaster
(fruit fly) * 1.1.2 Humans * 2 History * 2.1 After 1827 and Before 1950 * 2.2 After 1950 * 3 Vertebrate and invertebrate embryology * 4 Modern embryology research * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMALSAfter cleavage , the dividing cells, or morula , becomes a hollow ball, or blastula , which develops a hole or pore at one end
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Male Internal Genitalia
A SEX ORGAN (also called a REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN, PRIMARY SEX ORGAN, or PRIMARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTIC) is any anatomical part of the body in a complex organism that is involved in sexual reproduction and together constitute the reproductive system . The external and visible organs, in males and females, are the primary sex organs known as the GENITALS or GENITALIA. The internal organs are known as the secondary sex organs and are sometimes referred to as the internal genitalia. The characteristics that begin to appear during puberty , such as, in humans, pubic hair on both sexes and facial hair on the male, are known as secondary sex characteristics . Mosses , ferns , and some similar plants have gametangia for reproductive organs, which are part of the gametophyte . The flowers of flowering plants produce pollen and egg cells , but the sex organs themselves are inside the gametophytes within the pollen and the ovule
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University Of Fribourg
The UNIVERSITY OF FRIBOURG (French : Université de Fribourg; German : Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg
Fribourg
, Switzerland
Switzerland
. The roots of the university can be traced back to 1580, when the notable Jesuit Peter Canisius
Peter Canisius
founded the Collège Saint-Michel in the City of Fribourg
Fribourg
. In 1763, an Academy of law was founded by the state of Fribourg
Fribourg
which formed the nucleus of the present Law
Law
Faculty. The University
University
of Fribourg
Fribourg
was finally created in 1889 by an Act of the parliament of the Swiss Canton of Fribourg
Fribourg

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University Of Berne
The UNIVERSITY OF BERN (German : Universität Bern, French : Université de Berne, Latin : Universitas Bernensis) is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern
Bern
and was founded in 1834. It is regulated and financed by the Canton of Bern
Bern
. It is a comprehensive university offering a broad choice of courses and programs in eight faculties and some 150 institutes . With around 17,512 students , the University
University
of Bern
Bern
is the third biggest University
University
in Switzerland
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University Of Lausanne
The UNIVERSITY OF LAUSANNE (UNIL, French : Université de Lausanne) in Lausanne
Lausanne
, Switzerland
Switzerland
was founded in 1537 as a school of theology , before being made a university in 1890. Today about 13,500 students and 2,200 researchers study and work at the university . Approximately 1,500 international students attend the university (120 nationalities), which has a wide curriculum including exchange programs with world-renowned universities. Since 2005, the University
University
follows the requirements of the Bologna process . The 2011 Times Higher Education World University
University
Rankings ranked the University
University
of Lausanne
Lausanne
116th globally
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology , the CYTOPLASM is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus . It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell 's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryotic organisms (such as bacteria , which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryotic organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm . The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless. The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which remains after exclusion the cell organelles and particles is groundplasm . It is the hyaloplasm of light microscopy, and high complex, polyphasic system in which all of resolvable cytoplasmic elements of are suspended, including the larger organelles such as the ribosomes , mitochondria , the plant plastids , lipid droplets, and vacuoles
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Axoneme
Numerous eukaryotic cells carry whip-like appendages (cilia or eukaryotic flagella ) whose inner core consists of a cytoskeletal structure called the AXONEME. The axoneme serves as the "skeleton" of these organelles , both giving support to the structure and, in some cases, causing it to bend. Though distinctions of function and/or length may be made between cilia and flagella, the internal structure of the axoneme is common to both. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Motile cilia * 1.2 Non-motile/primary cilia * 2 Clinical significance * 3 References * 4 Further reading STRUCTUREInside cilia and flagella is a microtubule -based cytoskeleton called the axoneme. The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of a motile cilium has two central microtubules in addition to the nine outer doublets (called a 9+2 axoneme)
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DNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen ); DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses . DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids ; alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life . Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix . The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides . Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine , guanine , adenine or thymine ), a sugar called deoxyribose , and a phosphate group
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