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Spectrometer
A spectrometer ( /spɛkˈtrɒmɪtər/) is a scientific instrument originally used to split light into an array of separate colors, called a spectrum. Spectrometers were developed in early studies of physics, astronomy, and chemistry. The capability of spectroscopy to determine chemical composition drove its advancement and continues to be one of its primary uses. Spectrometers are used in astronomy to analyze the chemical composition of stars and planets, and spectrometers gather data on the origin of the universe. The concept of a spectrometer now encompasses instruments that do not examine light. Spectrometers separate particles, atoms, and molecules by their mass, momentum, or energy
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Vibronic Spectroscopy
Vibronic spectra involve simultaneous changes in the vibrational and electronic energy states of a molecule. In the gas phase vibronic transitions are accompanied by changes in rotational energy also. Vibronic spectra of diatomic molecules have been analysed in detail;[1] emission spectra are more complicated than absorption spectra. The intensity of allowed vibronic transitions is governed by the Franck–Condon principle. Vibronic spectroscopy may provide information, such as bond-length, on electronic excited states of stable molecules
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Beta Particle
A beta particle, sometimes called beta ray, denoted by the lower-case Greek letter beta (β), is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted in the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus, such as a potassium-40 nucleus, in the process of beta decay. Two forms of beta decay, β− and β+, respectively produce electrons and positrons.[1] Beta
Beta
particles are a type of ionizing radiation.Contents1 β− decay (electron emission) 2 β+ decay (positron emission) 3 Interaction with other matter3.1 Detection and measurement4 Uses 5 History 6 Health 7 See also 8 References 9 Further readingβ− decay (electron emission)[edit] Main article: β− decay Beta
Beta
decay. A beta particle (in this case a negative electron) is shown being emitted by a nucleus. An antineutrino (not shown) is always emitted along with an electron
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Mass-to-charge Ratio
The mass-to-charge ratio (m/Q) is a physical quantity that is most widely used in the electrodynamics of charged particles, e.g. in electron optics and ion optics. It appears in the scientific fields of electron microscopy, cathode ray tubes, accelerator physics, nuclear physics, Auger electron spectroscopy, cosmology and mass spectrometry.[1] The importance of the mass-to-charge ratio, according to classical electrodynamics, is that two particles with the same mass-to-charge ratio move in the same path in a vacuum when subjected to the same electric and magnetic fields. Its SI units are kg/C. In rare occasions the thomson has been used as its unit in the field of mass spectrometry. Some fields use the charge-to-mass ratio (Q/m) instead, which is the multiplicative inverse of the mass-to-charge ratio
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Ion
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Detector
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics, whether as simple as a light or as complex as a computer. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement,[1] for example into MARG sensors. Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used
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Charged Particle
In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge. It may be an ion, such as a molecule or atom with a surplus or deficit of electrons relative to protons. It can be the electrons and protons themselves, as well as other elementary particles, like positrons. It may also be an atomic nucleus devoid of electrons, such as an alpha particle, a helium nucleus. Neutrons have no charge. A plasma is a collection of charged particles, atomic nuclei and separated electrons, but can also be a gas containing a significant proportion of charged particles
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Lorentz Force
In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force
Lorentz force
is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge q moving with velocity v in the presence of an electric field E and a magnetic field B experiences a force F = q E + q v × B displaystyle mathbf F =qmathbf E +qmathbf v times mathbf B (in SI units[1][2])
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Alpha Particle
6973664465723000000♠6.644657230(82)×10−27 kg[1] 7000400150617912700♠4.001506179127(63) u 7000372737937800000♠3.727379378(23) GeV/c2Electric charge 2 eSpin 0[2] Alpha
Alpha
particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus. They are generally produced in the process of alpha decay, but may also be produced in other ways. Alpha
Alpha
particles are named after the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α. The symbol for the alpha particle is α or α2+. Because they are identical to helium nuclei, they are also sometimes written as He2+ or 4 2He2+ indicating a helium ion with a +2 charge (missing its two electrons)
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Ions
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Continuous Spectrum
In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers
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Spectral Resolution
The spectral resolution of a spectrograph, or, more generally, of a frequency spectrum, is a measure of its ability to resolve features in the electromagnetic spectrum. It is usually denoted by Δ λ displaystyle Delta lambda , and is closely related to the resolving power of the spectrograph, defined as R = λ Δ λ displaystyle R= lambda over Delta lambda , where Δ λ displaystyle Delta lambda is the smallest difference in wavelengths that can be distinguished at a wavelength of λ displaystyle lambda . For example, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph
Spectrograph
(STIS) can distinguish features 0.17 nm apart at a wavelength of 1000 nm, giving it a resolution of 0.17 nm and a resolving power of about 5,900
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Ultraviolet-visible Spectroscopy
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy
or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, atoms and molecules undergo electronic transitions
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Open Access
Open access
Open access
(OA) refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access (e.g. access tolls) and free of many restrictions on use (e.g
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
(FTIR)[1] is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission of a solid, liquid or gas. An FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects high-spectral-resolution data over a wide spectral range. This confers a significant advantage over a dispersive spectrometer, which measures intensity over a narrow range of wavelengths at a time. The term Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy
originates from the fact that a Fourier transform
Fourier transform
(a mathematical process) is required to convert the raw data into the actual spectrum
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