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Spectacled Bear
Ursus ornatus Cuvier, 1825The spectacled bear ( Tremarctos
Tremarctos
ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae). Its closest relatives are the extinct Florida spectacled bear,[2] and the giant short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
to Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
age.[3][4] Spectacled bears are the only surviving species of bear native to South America, and the only surviving member of the subfamily Tremarctinae
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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IUCN
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources[2]) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
("two-term naming system") also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin
Latin
grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin
Latin
name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens
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Georges Cuvier
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (French: [kyvje]; 23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".[1] Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century
19th century
and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. Cuvier's work is considered the foundation of vertebrate paleontology, and he expanded Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
by grouping classes into phyla and incorporating both fossils and living species into the classification.[2] Cuvier is also known for establishing extinction as a fact—at the time, extinction was considered by many of Cuvier's contemporaries to be merely controversial speculation
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Aymara Language
Aymara /aɪməˈrɑː/ (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people
Aymara people
of the Andes. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers.[3][4] Aymara, along with Spanish, is one of the official languages of Bolivia
Bolivia
and parts of Peru. It is also spoken, to a much lesser extent, by some communities in northern Chile, where it is a recognized minority language. Some linguists have claimed that Aymara is related to its more widely spoken neighbor, Quechua. That claim, however, is disputed. Although there are indeed similarities, like the nearly-identical phonologies, the majority position among linguists today is that the similarities are better explained as areal features rising from prolonged cohabitation, rather than natural genealogical changes that would stem from a common protolanguage. Aymara is an agglutinating and, to a certain extent, a polysynthetic language
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Quechua Language
Quechua (/ˈkɛtʃuə/, in AmE also /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/)[2], known as Runasimi ("people's language") in the Quechuan language, is an indigenous language family, with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America.[3] Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers.[4] Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak some variation of Quechua.[5][6] It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire. The colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it
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Middle Pleistocene
The Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch,[2] from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.[3] The base of the Middle
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Late Pleistocene
The Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene
Pleistocene
or Tarantian stage Pleistocene
Pleistocene
series rocks. The beginning of the stage is defined by the base of the Eemian interglacial
Eemian interglacial
phase before the final glacial episode of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
126,000 ± 5,000 years ago. Its end is defined at the end of the Younger Dryas, some 11,700 years ago.[2][3] The age represents the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch and is followed by the Holocene
Holocene
epoch. Much of the Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
age was dominated by glaciation (the Wisconsin glaciation
Wisconsin glaciation
in North America
North America
and corresponding glacial periods in Eurasia)
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Cincinnati Zoo
The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Zoo
Zoo
and Botanical Garden is the second-oldest zoo in the United States. It is located in Cincinnati, Ohio, and opened in 1875, just 14 months after the Philadelphia Zoo
Zoo
opened on July 1, 1874. The Reptile House is the oldest zoo building in the United States, dating from 1875. The Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Zoo
Zoo
is located in the Avondale neighborhood of Cincinnati. It was founded on 65.4 acres (26.5 ha) in the middle of the city, and since then it has acquired some of the surrounding blocks and several reserves in Cincinnati's outer suburbs. The zoo conducts breeding programs, and was the first to successfully breed California sea lions. The zoo also has other breeding programs including South African cheetahs, Sumatran rhinoceros, Malayan tigers, western lowland gorillas, pottos, and Masai giraffes
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Mammal
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Obligate Carnivore
A carnivore /ˈkɑːrnɪvɔːr/, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.[1][2] Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are called obligate carnivores while those that also consume non-animal food are called facultative carnivores.[2] Omnivores also consume both animal and non-animal food, and, apart from the more general definition, there is no clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivore from an omnivore.[3] A carnivore that sits at the top of the food chain is termed an apex predator. The word "carnivore" is only refers to the mammalian order Carnivora, but this is somewhat misleading
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Baird's Tapir
Tapirella bairdii Baird's tapir
Baird's tapir
(Tapirus bairdii), also known as the Central American tapir, is a species of tapir native to Mexico, Central America and northwestern South America.[3] It is one of four Latin American species of tapir.Contents1 Names 2 Description 3 Lifecycle 4 Behavior 5 Predation and vulnerability 6 References 7 External linksNames[edit] Baird's tapir
Baird's tapir
is named for the American naturalist Spencer Fullerton Baird,[4] who traveled to Mexico in 1843 and observed the animals. However, the species was first documented by another American naturalist, W. T. White.[5] The tapir is the largest land mammal in Central America.[6] Like the other Latin American tapirs (the mountain tapir, the South American tapir, and the little black tapir), the Baird's tapir
Baird's tapir
is commonly called danta by people in all areas
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South American Tapir
  probable   confirmed    locally extinctThe South American tapir
South American tapir
(Tapirus terrestris), Brazilian tapir (from the Tupi tapi'ira), lowland tapir or (in Portuguese) anta, is one of five species in the tapir family, along with the mountain tapir, the Malayan tapir, the Baird's tapir,[3] and the kabomani tapir.[4] The lowland tapir is the largest surviving native terrestrial mammal in the Amazon.[5]Contents1 Appearance 2 Range 3 Behavior 4 Diet 5 Mating 6 Endangered status 7 Gallery 8 References 9 External linksAppearance[edit] It is dark brown, paler in the face, and has a low, erect crest running from the crown down the back of the neck. The round, dark ears have distinctive white edges. Newborn tapirs have a dark brown coat, with small white spots and stripes along the body
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