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Special Organisation (Algeria)
The Special
Special
Organisation (French: Organisation spéciale) was a secret paramilitary organisation in colonial Algeria, founded by Mohamed Belouizdad of the Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTLD) in 1947 to prepare for armed struggle against France, which ruled Algeria
Algeria
as a colony since 1830. The turn towards guerrilla warfare was in large part encouraged by the reactions to the Sétif massacre in 1945, and other examples of violent repression, which had convinced many Algerian activists that peaceful political work would be pointless. The OS had around 1500-2000 members at its peak, and spawned the groups that would later form the FLN; this group, in turn, became the leading force in the Algerian War of Independence
Algerian War of Independence
(1954–1962), and later Algeria's single ruling party until 1989. The OS was dismantled by French police in 1951, and many members imprisoned
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Paramilitary
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.[1]Contents1 Legality 2 Types2.1 Examples of paramilitary units3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLegality[edit] Under the law of war, a state may incorporate a paramilitary organization or armed agency (such as a national police, a private volunteer militia) into its combatant armed forces. The other parties to a conflict have to be notified thereof.[2] Though a paramilitary is not a military force, it is usually equivalent to a military's light infantry force in terms of intensity, firepower, and organizational structure
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Algeria
Coordinates: 28°N 2°E / 28°N 2°E / 28; 2People's Democratic Republic of Algeria الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic) ⵟⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵜⴰⵎⴻⴳⴷⴰⵢⵜ ⵜⴰⵖⴻⵔⴼⴰⵏⵜ ⵜⴰⵣⵣⴰⵢⵔⵉⵜ (Berber) République Algérienne Démocratique et Populaire (French)FlagEmblemMotto: بالشّعب وللشّعب By the people and for the people[1][2]Anthem: Kassaman (English: "We Pledge")Location of  Algeria  (dark green)Capital and largest city Algiers 36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700°N 3.217°E / 36.700; 3.217Official languagesArabic[3] Berber[4]Other languagesFrench (business and education)[5] Darja
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Movement For The Triumph Of Democratic Liberties
The Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTLD), name proposed by Maiza, was created October 1946 to replace the outlawed Parti du Peuple Algerien (PPA). Messali Hadj
Messali Hadj
remained as its president. The MTLD was created on the same platform as that of the PPA, that is full independence for Algeria. A month after its creation it won five seats (out of 15 elected) in the November 'two colleges' Algerian elections, despite numerous irregularities. During that same election Ferhat Abbas
Ferhat Abbas
was elected under the banner of the Union Democratique du Manifeste Algerien (UDMA), a party he formed in the same year. In the 1948 elections, the MTLD lost all seats, and in 1950, it was repressed by the police. A power struggle erupted between Messali Hadj
Messali Hadj
and the Central Committee, the legislative body of the Party
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Colony
In politics and history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.[vague] For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception. The metropolitan state is the state that rules the colony. In Ancient Greece, the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis. "Mother country" is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony
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Guerrilla Warfare
Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.[1] Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor.Contents1 Etymology 2 Strategy, tactics and methods2.1 Strategy 2.2 Tactics 2.3 Unconventional methods 2.4 Growth during the 20th century3 History 4 Counter-guerrilla warfare4.1 Scholarship4.1.1 Classic guidelines 4.1.2 Variants5 Foco
Foco
theory 6 Relationship to terrorism 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra" ("war")
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Sétif Massacre
The Sétif
Sétif
and Guelma
Guelma
massacre was a series of widespread disturbances and killings in and around the French Algerian market town of Sétif, west of Constantine, in 1945. Local French police fired on local demonstrators at a protest on 8 May 1945.[1] Riots in the town itself were followed by attacks on French colons (settlers) in the surrounding countryside resulting in 102 deaths. Subsequent attacks by the French authorities and European settler vigilantes caused much greater numbers of deaths amongst the Muslim population of the region: estimates ranged between 1,020 (contemporary French claim) and 45,000 (subsequent Radio Cairo claim) people killed
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Algerian War Of Independence
 FranceSupported by: NATO FAF (1960–61) OAS (1961–62)Commanders and leadersMourad Didouche † Mustapha Benboulaïd † Larbi Ben M'Hidi  Ali La Pointe † Ahmed Zabana  Youcef Zighoud † Benali Boudghène † Bachir Chihani † Ali Mallah † Colonel Amirouche † Saadi Yacef Politicians: Abane Ramdane † Ferhat Abbas Houari Boumedienne Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Frantz Fanon Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Ali Kafi Ahmed Tewfik El Madani Ahmed Francis Mohamed Khider Benyoucef Benkhedda Abdelhamid Mehri Mohamed Lamine Debaghine Saad Dahlab Mohammed Seddik Benyahia Amar Ouamrane Lakhdar Ben Tobbal Abdelhafid Boussouf Saïd Mohammedi Ibrahim Mazhoudi Alphonse Djamate (1955–62) Paul Cherrière (1954–55) Henri Lorillot (1955–56)
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Aurès
Aures (Amazigh: ⴰⵡⵔⴰⵙ / Awras) is an Amazigh language-speaking natural region located in the mountainous area of the Aurès range in eastern Algeria. The region includes the Algerian provinces of Batna, Tebessa, Khenchela, Oum El Bouaghi, Souk Ahras and Biskra.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Aures region is characterized both by its mountain terrain and by the Chaoui
Chaoui
ethnic group that historically has inhabited the area. The rugged terrain of the Aurès made that the region became one of the less developed areas in the Maghreb
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Kabylie
Kabylie, or Kabylia (Berber languages: Tamurt en Yiqbayliyen ; Tazwawa; ⵜⴰⵎⵓⵔⵜ ⵏ ⵍⴻⵇⴱⴰⵢⴻⵍ), is a cultural region, natural region, and historical region in northern Algeria. It is part of the Tell Atlas
Tell Atlas
mountain range, and is located at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea. Kabylia covers several provinces of Algeria: the whole of Tizi Ouzou and Bejaia
Bejaia
(Bgayet), most of Bouira
Bouira
(Tubirett) and parts of the wilayas of Boumerdes, Jijel, Setif
Setif
and Bordj Bou Arreridj
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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National Liberation Front (Algeria)
The National Liberation Front (Arabic: جبهة التحرير الوطني‎ Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; French: Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria. It was the principal nationalist movement during the Algerian War
Algerian War
and the sole legal and the ruling political party of the Algerian state until other parties were legalised in 1989.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Colonial era1.1.1 FLN violence during and after the war for independence1.2 Independence and one-party state 1.3 Multi-party
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Special Organisation (Algeria)
The Special
Special
Organisation (French: Organisation spéciale) was a secret paramilitary organisation in colonial Algeria, founded by Mohamed Belouizdad of the Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTLD) in 1947 to prepare for armed struggle against France, which ruled Algeria
Algeria
as a colony since 1830. The turn towards guerrilla warfare was in large part encouraged by the reactions to the Sétif massacre in 1945, and other examples of violent repression, which had convinced many Algerian activists that peaceful political work would be pointless. The OS had around 1500-2000 members at its peak, and spawned the groups that would later form the FLN; this group, in turn, became the leading force in the Algerian War of Independence
Algerian War of Independence
(1954–1962), and later Algeria's single ruling party until 1989. The OS was dismantled by French police in 1951, and many members imprisoned
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