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Spanish Poetry
Contents1 Medieval Spain1.1 Early Middle Ages 1.2 Later Middle Ages2 Arabic
Arabic
and Hebrew
Hebrew
poetry during the Moorish period 3 After 1492 4 The Golden Age (El Siglo de Oro) 5 Romanticism 6 1898 until 1926 7 1927 until 1936 8 1939 until 1975 9 1975 until present 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Further readingMedieval Spain[edit] Main article: Medieval Spanish literatureCantar de Mio CidThe Medieval period covers 400 years of different poetry texts and can be broken up into five categoriesPrimitive LyricsSince the findings of the Kharjas, which are mainly two, three, or four verses, Spanish lyrics, which are written in Mozarabic
Mozarabic
dialect, are perhaps the oldest of Romance Europe
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Piyyut
A piyyut or piyut (plural piyyutim or piyutim, Hebrew: פִּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פִּיּוּט / פיוט‬ pronounced [piˈjut, pijuˈtim]; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. Piyyutim have been written since Temple times. Most piyyutim are in Hebrew or Aramaic, and most follow some poetic scheme, such as an acrostic following the order of the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
or spelling out the name of the author. Many piyyutim are familiar to regular attendees of synagogue services. For example, the best-known piyyut may be Adon Olam
Adon Olam
("Master of the World"), sometimes (but almost certainly wrongly) attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol
Solomon ibn Gabirol
in 11th century Spain
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Xohán De Cangas
Johan de Cangas (or Xohan de Cangas in an anachronistically modernized Galician form) was a jograr or non-noble troubadour, probably active during the thirteenth century. He seems to have been from—or associated with – Cangas do Morrazo, a small town on Pontevedra, Galicia (Spain). Only three of his songs survive. All three are cantigas de amigo and in each of them the girl mentions a religious site (ermida) at San Momede do Mar ("San Momede of the Sea"). These references to the sea may be symbolic (symbolizing sexuality) as they are real (given the geography), but they have has earned this poet the designation of "singer of the sea"
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Archaism
In language, an archaism (from the Ancient Greek: ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts. Their deliberate use can be subdivided into literary archaisms, which seeks to evoke the style of older speech and writing; and lexical archaisms, the use of words no longer in common use.[1] A distinction between archaic and obsolete words and word senses is widely used by dictionaries. An archaic word or sense is one that still has some current use but whose use has dwindled to a few specialized contexts, outside which it connotes old-fashioned language. In contrast, an obsolete word or sense is one that is no longer used at all. A reader encounters them when reading texts that are centuries old
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Mozarab
The Mozarabs
Mozarabs
(Spanish: mozárabes [moˈθaɾaβes]; Portuguese: moçárabes [muˈsaɾɐβɨʃ]; Catalan: mossàrabs [muˈsaɾəps]; Arabic: مستعرب‎ trans. musta'rab, "Arabized") is a modern historical term that refers to the Iberian Christians who lived under Moorish rule in Al-Andalus. Although their descendants remained unconverted to Islam, they were mostly fluent in Arabic
Arabic
and adopted elements of Arabic
Arabic
culture. The local Romance vernaculars, heavily permeated by Arabic, spoken by Christians and Muslim alike has also come to be known as Mozarabic language
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Mester De Juglaría
Mester de juglaría ("Ministry of jongleury") is a Castilian-language literature genre from the 12th and 13th centuries, transmitted orally by "juglares" who made their living by telling and singing these stories in public places and palaces while performing short theatrical scenes, acrobatics or other amusements. These anonymous stories were mostly cantar de gesta. Although versified to make it easier to memorize, juglares probably often changed the story a little bit as they passed it to others. There are more theories regarding the origin of these texts. The individualist theory states that these texts were the creation of one poet and they didn't change much
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Mester De Clerecía
Mester de Clerecía ("Ministry of Clergy") is a Castilian literature genre that can be understood as an opposition and surpassing of Mester de Juglaría. It was cultivated in the 13th century by Spanish learned poets, usually clerics (hence the name 'clerecía'). . Unlike Mester de Juglaría, Mester de Clerecía was written on paper, not anonymous, with regular metre (the cuaderna vía) and done by educated authors. Also the topics are more serious: religious, historical and novelesque. The stanzas in them are composed of 4 alexandrine lines which contain 14 syllables each. The most famous authors of this period are Gonzalo de Berceo and Arcipreste de Hita. The Poema de Fernán González
Poema de Fernán González
is an example of anonymous mester de clerecía. These poets carefully counted the number of syllables in each line and strived to achieve perfect lines
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Juan Ruiz
Juan Ruiz (c. 1283 – c. 1350), known as the Archpriest of Hita (Arcipreste de Hita), was a medieval Castilian poet. He is best known for his ribald, earthy poem, Libro de buen amor (The Book of Good Love).Contents1 Biography1.1 Origins 1.2 Imprisonment 1.3 Death2 The Book of Good Love 3 Legacy 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Origins[edit] He was born either in Alcalá de Henares or Alcalá la Real, still unknown today. Little is known about him today, save that he was a cleric and probably studied in Toledo. Though his birth name is known to be Juan Ruiz, he is widely referred to by his title of "archpriest of Hita." Imprisonment[edit] According to his own book, he was imprisoned for years, thought to be between 1337 and 1350, as punishment for some of his deeds (if the poem is any guide, they were quite inconsistent with his position as priest)
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Arcipreste De Hita
Juan Ruiz (c. 1283 – c. 1350), known as the Archpriest
Archpriest
of Hita (Arcipreste de Hita), was a medieval Castilian poet. He is best known for his ribald, earthy poem, Libro de buen amor (The Book of Good Love).Contents1 Biography1.1 Origins 1.2 Imprisonment 1.3 Death2 The Book of Good Love 3 Legacy 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Origins[edit] He was born either in Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares
or Alcalá la Real, still unknown today. Little is known about him today, save that he was a cleric and probably studied in Toledo
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Gonzalo De Berceo
Gonzalo de Berceo (ca. 1197 – before 1264) was a Castilian poet born in the Riojan village of Berceo, close to the major Benedictine monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla. He is celebrated for his poems on religious subjects, written in a style of verse which has been called Mester de Clerecía, shared with more secular productions such as the Libro de Alexandre, the Libro de Apolonio. He is considered the first Castilian poet known by name. Gonzalo is recorded as being a deacon in his home parish in the early 1220s, and as a priest from 1237 on. It has been surmised that he may have studied in the nascent university of Palencia, and may have served in the curia of the bishop of Calahorra. He wrote devotional and theological works
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Troubadours
A troubadour (English: /ˈtruːbədʊər/, French: [tʁubaduʁ]; Occitan: trobador, IPA: [tɾuβaˈðu]) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan
Old Occitan
lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350). Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz. The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania, but it subsequently spread to Italy and Spain. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang
Minnesang
in Germany, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal, and that of the trouvères in northern France. Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
defined the troubadour lyric as fictio rethorica musicaque poita: rhetorical, musical, and poetical fiction
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Palla (troubadour)
Palla was a Galician-Portuguese troubadour or minstrel from Santiago de Compostela, active at the court of Alfonso VII of León in the mid-twelfth century. Palla is described in contemporary documentation as a iuglar (cognate with "juggler", but signifying jongleur). He was at Alfonso's court at Burgos on 24 April 1136 and again at Toledo on 9 December 1151. Sources[edit]Barton, Simon. The Aristocracy in Twelfth-Century León and Castile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997
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Romancero
A romancero is any collection of Spanish romances, a type of folk ballad (sung narrative). The romancero is the entire corpus of such ballads. As a distinct body of literature they borrow themes such as war, honour, aristocracy and heroism from epic poetry, especially the medieval cantar de gesta and chivalric romance, and they often have a pretense of historicity. The romancero was once thought to extend back in time to before the earliest Old Spanish cantares, like the Poema del Cid, but it is now argued that they are instead successors to the truly epic chivalric genres. The earliest examples of romances date from the fourteenth century, and some are shortened narrations of stories drawn from the cantares and romances
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Paio Soares De Taveirós
Paio Soares de Taveirós or Paay Soarez de Taveiroos seems to have been a minor Galician nobleman and troubadour active during the second and third decades of the 13th century. He was a brother of the troubadour Pêro Velho de Taveirós. Of his works, six cantigas de amor, three cantigas de amigo, and two tensos (one with Martim Soares and one with his brother) survive. He may have been one of the earliest authors in Galician-Portuguese lyric, and his Cantiga da Garvaia, a satiric cantiga de amor (or cantiga de escárnio) is one of the most famous poems in the corpus. References[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paio Soares de Taveirós.Wikisource has original text related to this article: Paio Soares de TaveirósVallín, Gema. 1995. Las cantigas de Pay Soarez de Taveirós, estudio histórico y edición. Bellaterra / Barcelona: Facultad de Letras, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Oliveira, António Resende de. 1994
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Macías
Macías (approx. 1340-1370) was a Galician troubadour and one of the last Galician medieval poets.Contents1 Life 2 Poetry 3 Legend 4 Influence on Peninsular literature 5 Bibliography 6 External linksLife[edit] Little is known about the life of Macías. His successor and compatriot Juan Rodríguez de la Cámara establishes that Macías was a native of Galicia. H. A. Rennert has determined the time period in which he lived based on a number of references, the earliest and most important of which is the Marqués de Santillana’s 1449 letter to the Constable of Portugal Dom Pedro. In the letter, the Marqués mentions Macías as a contemporary of two late-fourteenth century poets, Basco Pérez de Camoes and Ferrant Casquiçio, whose lives are better documented
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