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Spanish Poetry
CONTENTS* 1 Medieval Spain
Spain
* 1.1 Early Middle Ages * 1.2 Later Middle Ages * 2 Arabic
Arabic
and Hebrew
Hebrew
poetry during the Moorish period * 3 After 1492 * 4 The Golden Age (El Siglo de Oro) * 5 Romanticism
Romanticism
* 6 1898 until 1926 * 7 1927 until 1936 * 8 1939 until 1975 * 9 1975 until present * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 Further reading MEDIEVAL SPAIN Main article: Medieval Spanish literature Cantar de Mio Cid
Cantar de Mio Cid
The Medieval period covers 400 years of different poetry texts and can be broken up into five categories Primitive Lyrics Since the findings of the Kharjas , which are mainly two, three, or four verses, Spanish lyrics, which are written in Mozarabic
Mozarabic
dialect, are perhaps the oldest of Romance Europe
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Arcipreste De Hita
JUAN RUIZ (c. 1283 – c. 1350), known as the ARCHPRIEST OF HITA (Arcipreste de Hita), was a medieval Castilian poet. He is best known for his ribald, earthy poem , Libro de buen amor (The Book of Good Love ). CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Imprisonment * 1.3 Death * 2 The Book of Good Love
The Book of Good Love
* 3 Legacy * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYORIGINSHe was born either in Alcalá de Henares or Alcalá la Real , still unknown today. Little is known about him today, save that he was a cleric and probably studied in Toledo
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Juan Ruiz
JUAN RUIZ (c. 1283 – c. 1350), known as the ARCHPRIEST OF HITA (Arcipreste de Hita), was a medieval Castilian poet. He is best known for his ribald, earthy poem , Libro de buen amor (The Book of Good Love ). CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Imprisonment * 1.3 Death * 2 The Book of Good Love * 3 Legacy * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYORIGINSHe was born either in Alcalá de Henares or Alcalá la Real , still unknown today. Little is known about him today, save that he was a cleric and probably studied in Toledo . Though his birth name is known to be Juan Ruiz, he is widely referred to by his title of "archpriest of Hita." IMPRISONMENTAccording to his own book, he was imprisoned for years, thought to be between 1337 and 1350, as punishment for some of his deeds (if the poem is any guide, they were quite inconsistent with his position as priest )
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Gonzalo De Berceo
GONZALO DE BERCEO (ca. 1197 – before 1264) was a Castilian poet born in the Riojan village of Berceo , close to the major Benedictine monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla . He is celebrated for his poems on religious subjects, written in a style of verse which has been called Mester de Clerecía , shared with more secular productions such as the Libro de Alexandre , the Libro de Apolonio . He is considered the first Castilian poet known by name. Gonzalo is recorded as being a deacon in his home parish in the early 1220s, and as a priest from 1237 on. It has been surmised that he may have studied in the nascent university of Palencia , and may have served in the curia of the bishop of Calahorra . He wrote devotional and theological works
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Troubadours
A TROUBADOUR (English: /ˈtruːbədʊər/ , French: ; Occitan : trobador, IPA: ) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan
Old Occitan
lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
(1100–1350). Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz . The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania
Occitania
, but it subsequently spread into Italy
Italy
and Spain
Spain
. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang
Minnesang
in Germany
Germany
, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal
Portugal
, and that of the trouvères in northern France
France

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Xohán De Cangas
JOHAN DE CANGAS (or Xohan de Cangas in an anachronistically modernized Galician form) was a jograr or non-noble troubadour , probably active during the thirteenth century. He seems to have been from—or associated with -- Cangas do Morrazo , a small town on Pontevedra , Galicia (Spain ). Only three of his songs survive. All three are cantigas de amigo and in each of them the girl mentions a religious site (ermida) at San Momede do Mar ("San Momede of the Sea"). These references to the sea may be symbolic (symbolizing sexuality) as they are real (given the geography), but they have has earned this poet the designation of "singer of the sea". In the first text, a girl asks her mother for permission to go see her boyfriend at San Momede do Mar; in the second she informs her mother than the boyfriend did not come and she has surely lost him; in the third she asks her boyfriend to meet her there, and not to break his word to her again
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Mester De Clerecía
MESTER DE CLERECíA ("Ministry of Clergy") is a Castilian literature genre that can be understood as an opposition and surpassing of Mester de Juglaría . It was cultivated in the 13th century by Spanish learned poets, usually clerics (hence the name 'clerecía'). . Unlike Mester de Juglaría, Mester de Clerecía was written on paper, not anonymous , with regular metre (the cuaderna vía) and done by educated authors. Also the topics are more serious: religious, historical and novelesque. The stanzas in them are composed of 4 alexandrine lines which contain 14 syllables each. The most famous authors of this period are Gonzalo de Berceo and Arcipreste de Hita . The Poema de Fernán González is an example of anonymous mester de clerecía. These poets carefully counted the number of syllables in each line and strived to achieve perfect lines. The line form is the Alexandrine line (14 syllables) with consonantal rhyme in stanzas of four lines each
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Mester De Juglaría
MESTER DE JUGLARíA ("Ministry of jongleury ") is a Castilian-language literature genre from the 12th and 13th centuries, transmitted orally by "juglares" who made their living by telling and singing these stories in public places and palaces while performing short theatrical scenes, acrobatics or other amusements. These anonymous stories were mostly cantar de gesta . Although versified to make it easier to memorize, juglares probably often changed the story a little bit as they passed it to others. There are more theories regarding the origin of these texts. The individualist theory states that these texts were the creation of one poet and they didn't change much. On the other hand, the traditionalist theory says that it is a collective work of the public and it was totally changed on its route. Compared to the Mester de Clerecía the authors weren't educated, it treats popular topics, the language is simple and the metrics of the verses is irregular
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) 6 other official names * ARAGONESE : Reino d'Espanya ASTURIAN : Reinu d'España BASQUE : Espainiako Erresuma CATALAN : Regne d'Espanya GALICIAN : Reino de España OCCITAN : Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rɪˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) is a period in European history , covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history . It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy
Italy
, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras
Protagoras
, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Archaism
In language , an ARCHAISM (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts. Their deliberate use can be subdivided into literary archaisms, which seeks to evoke the style of older speech and writing; and lexical archaisms, the use of words no longer in common use. A distinction between ARCHAIC and OBSOLETE words and word senses is widely used by dictionaries. An archaic word or sense is one that still has some current use but whose use has dwindled to a few specialized contexts, outside which it connotes old-fashioned language. In contrast, an obsolete word or sense is one that is no longer used at all. A reader encounters them when reading texts that are centuries old
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Mozarab
The MOZARABS (Spanish : mozárabes ; Portuguese : moçárabes ; Catalan : mossàrabs ; Arabic
Arabic
: مستعرب‎‎ trans. musta'rab, "Arabized") is a modern historical term that refers to the Iberian Christians who lived under Moorish rule in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
. Their descendants remained unconverted to Islam
Islam
, however they were mostly fluent in Arabic
Arabic
and adopted elements of Arabic
Arabic
culture. The local Romance vernaculars, heavily permeated by Arabic, spoken by Christians and Muslim alike has also come to be known as Mozarabic language. Mozarabs were mostly Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
of the Visigothic or Mozarabic Rite
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Palla (troubadour)
PALLA was a Galician-Portuguese troubadour or minstrel from Santiago de Compostela , active at the court of Alfonso VII of León in the mid-twelfth century. Palla is described in contemporary documentation as a iuglar (cognate with "juggler", but signifying jongleur ). He was at Alfonso's court at Burgos on 24 April 1136 and again at Toledo on 9 December 1151. SOURCES * Barton, Simon. The Aristocracy in Twelfth-Century León and Castile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997
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Paio Soares De Taveirós
PAIO SOARES DE TAVEIRóS or Paay Soarez de Taveiroos seems to have been a minor Galician nobleman and troubadour active during the second and third decades of the 13th century. He was a brother of the troubadour Pêro Velho de Taveirós . Of his works, six cantigas de amor , three cantigas de amigo , and two tensos (one with Martim Soares and one with his brother) survive. He may have been one of the earliest authors in Galician-Portuguese lyric , and his Cantiga da Garvaia , a satiric cantiga de amor (or cantiga de escárnio ) is one of the most famous poems in the corpus. REFERENCES Wikimedia Commons has media related to PAIO SOARES DE TAVEIRóS . Wikisource has original text related to this article: PAIO SOARES DE TAVEIRóS * Vallín, Gema. 1995. Las cantigas de Pay Soarez de Taveirós, estudio histórico y edición. Bellaterra / Barcelona: Facultad de Letras, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. * Oliveira, António Resende de. 1994
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Arabs
ARABS ( Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَب‎‎ ; ( listen )) are a population inhabiting the Arab world
Arab world
. They primarily live in the Arab
Arab
states in Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and western Indian Ocean islands . The Arabs
Arabs
are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BC as tribal people in eastern and southern Syria, and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs
Arabs
appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BC), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BC), Achaemenid (539–332 BC), Seleucid and Parthian empires
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Juan De Mena
JUAN DE MENA (1411–1456) was one of the most significant Spanish poets of the fifteenth century. He was highly regarded at the court of Juan II de Castilla , who appointed him veinticuatro (one of twenty-four aldermen) of Córdoba, secretario de cartas latinas (secretary of Latin letters) and cronista real (royal chronicler). His works show the influence of Renaissance humanism and place him in the period of transition in Spain from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance
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