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Spanish Irregular Verbs
Spanish verbs
Spanish verbs
are a complex area of Spanish grammar, with many combinations of tenses, aspects and moods (up to fifty conjugated forms per verb). Although conjugation rules are relatively straightforward, a large number of verbs are irregular. Among these, some fall into more-or-less defined deviant patterns, whereas others are uniquely irregular. This article summarizes the common irregular patterns. As in all Romance languages, many irregularities in Spanish verbs
Spanish verbs
can be retraced to Latin
Latin
grammar.Contents1 Orthographic changes 2 Stem-vowel changes2.1 Diphthongization2.1.1 Present indicative 2.1.2 Present subjunctive 2.1.3 Imperative2.2 Vowel raising2.2.1 Affected forms 2.2.2 Affected verbs3 Diphthongs and hiatuses3.1 Cambio vs
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Spanish Conjugation
This article presents a set of paradigms—that is, conjugation tables—of Spanish verbs, including examples of regular verbs and some of the most common irregular verbs. For other irregular verbs and their common patterns, see the article on Spanish irregular verbs. The tables include only the "simple" tenses (that is, those formed with a single word), and not the "compound" tenses (those formed with an auxiliary verb plus a non-finite form of the main verb), such as the progressive, perfect, and passive voice. The progressive aspects (also called "continuous tenses") are formed by using the appropriate tense of estar + gerund, and the perfect constructions are formed by using the appropriate tense of haber + past participle. When the past participle is used in this way, it invariably ends with -o. In contrast, when the participle is used as an adjective, it agrees in gender and number with the noun modified
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Romance Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Loísmo
Loísmo, with its feminine counterpart laísmo, is a feature of certain dialects of Spanish consisting of the use of the pronouns lo or la (which are normally used for direct objects) in place of the pronoun le (which is used for indirect objects). Loísmo
Loísmo
and laísmo are almost entirely restricted to some dialects in central Spain; they are virtually absent from formal and written language. In practice laísmo is more frequent than loísmo. A simple example of loísmo and laísmo would be saying lo hablé (lit. "I spoke him") or la hablé (lit. "I spoke her") where a speaker of a dialect without loísmo would say le hablé (lit. "I spoke to him/her"). This effectively means the loss of a declensional case marker. The difference between lo (accusative case) and le (dative case) are holdovers from Latin declension
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Spanish-based Creole Languages
A number of creole languages are based on the Spanish language, including Chavacano, Palenquero, and Bozal Spanish. Spanish also influenced other creole languages like Papiamento, Pichinglis, and Annobonese.Contents1 Spanish creole languages1.1 Chavacano 1.2 Palenquero 1.3 Bozal Spanish 1.4 Esmeraldeño-Chota Creole2 Spanish-influenced creole languages2.1 Annobonese 2.2 Papiamento 2.3 Pichinglis 2.4 San Andrés–Providencia Creole3 See also 4 References 5 Notes 6 External linksSpanish creole languages[edit] Chavacano[edit] Further information: Chavacano Chavacano
Chavacano
(also Chabacano) refers to a number of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines. Linguists have identified a number of different varieties including: Zamboangueño, Caviteño, Ternateño (where their variety is locally known as Bahra), and Ermitaño
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Spanglish
Spanglish
Spanglish
(a portmanteau of the words "Spanish" and "English") is a name sometimes given to various contact dialects, pidgins, or creole languages that result from interaction between Spanish and English used by people who speak both languages or parts of both languages. It is a blend of Spanish and English lexical items and grammar. Spanglish is not a pidgin, because unlike pidgin languages, Spanglish
Spanglish
can be the primary speech form for some individuals.[citation needed] Spanglish can be considered a variety of Spanish with heavy use of English or a variety of English with heavy use of Spanish.[citation needed] It can be more related either to Spanish or to English, depending on the circumstances. Since Spanglish
Spanglish
arises independently in each region, it reflects the locally spoken varieties of English and Spanish
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Portuñol
Portuñol
Portuñol
(Spanish spelling) or Portunhol (Portuguese spelling) ( pronunciation) is the name often given to any unsystematic mixture of Portuguese with Spanish.[1] The word is a portmanteau of the words Portugués/Português ("Portuguese") and Español/Espanhol ("Spanish"). Portuñol, or Portunhol, is a pidgin, or simplified mixture of the two languages, that allows speakers of either Spanish or Portuguese who are not proficient in the other language to communicate with one another.[2] When speakers of one of the languages attempt to speak the other language, there is often interference from the native lan
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Spanish As A Second Or Foreign Language
The term Spanish as a second or foreign language
Spanish as a second or foreign language
is the learning or teaching of the Spanish language
Spanish language
for those whose first language is not Spanish.Contents1 Regional programmes1.1 Argentina1.1.1 The Certification of Spanish Language and Use1.2 Spain1.2.1 Diplomas de Español como Lengua Extranjera2 Resources 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksRegional programmes[edit] Argentina[edit] In October 2001, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Foreign Relations, International Commerce and Culture of the Argentine Republic approved the guidelines in order to evaluate the knowledge and use of Spanish as a Second or Foreign Language in Argentina
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Hispanism
Hispanism
Hispanism
(sometimes referred to as Hispanic
Hispanic
Studies or Spanish Studies) is the study of the literature and culture of the Spanish-speaking world, principally that of Spain
Spain
and Hispanic America
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Instituto Cervantes
The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government
Spanish government
in 1991.[1] It is named after Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616), the author of Don Quixote
Don Quixote
and perhaps the most important figure in the history of Spanish literature
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Royal Spanish Academy
The Royal Spanish Academy
Royal Spanish Academy
(Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is the official royal institution responsible for overseeing the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in 22 other hispanophone (Spanish-speaking) nations through the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language.[1] The RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is "Limpia, fija y da esplendor" ("Cleans, fixes, and gives splendor"). The RAE dedicates itself to language planning by applying linguistic prescription aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and between the various territories, to ensure a common standard[citation needed] in accordance with Article 1 of its founding charter: "..
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Grammatical Conjugation
In linguistics, conjugation (/ˌkɒndʒʊˈɡeɪʃən/[2][3]) is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar). Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, case, and other grammatical categories such as possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity,[4] pluractionality, reciprocity, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers[5] in some languages. Agglutinative
Agglutinative
and polysynthetic languages tend to have the most complex conjugations albeit some fusional languages such as Archi can also have extremely complex conjugation. Typically the principal parts are the root and/or several modifications of it (stems)
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Irregular Verb
A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs. A verb whose conjugation follows a different pattern is called an irregular verb. (This is one instance of the distinction between regular and irregular inflection, which can also apply to other word classes, such as nouns and adjectives.) In English, for example, verbs such as play, enter, and like are regular since they form their inflected parts by adding the typical endings -s, -ing and -ed to give forms such as plays, entering, and liked. On the other hand, verbs such as drink, hit and have are irregular since some of their parts are not made according to the typical pattern: drank and drunk (not "drinked"); hit (as past tense and past participle, not "hitted") and has and had (not "haves" and "haved"). The classification of verbs as regular or irregular is to some extent a subjective matter
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Latin Grammar
Latin
Latin
is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order. Nouns are inflected for number and case; pronouns and adjectives (including participles) are inflected for number, case, and gender; and verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, voice, and mood. The inflections are often changes in the ending of a word, but can be more complicated, especially with verbs. Thus verbs can take any of over 100 different endings to express different meanings, for example regō "I rule", regor "I am ruled", regere "to rule", regī "to be ruled", rēxisset "he would have ruled", and so on. Regular verbs are classified into four different groups known as conjugations, according to whether the infinitive ends with -āre, -ēre, -ere, or -īre
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Voseo
In Spanish grammar, voseo (Spanish pronunciation: [boˈse.o]) is the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, including its conjugational verb forms in many dialects. In dialects that have it, it is used either instead of tú, or alongside it. Voseo
Voseo
is seldom taught to students of Spanish as a second language, and its precise usage varies across different regions.[1] Nevertheless, in recent years it has become more accepted across the Spanish-speaking world as a valid part of regional dialects
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Vowel Breaking
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture,[1] or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.Contents1 Types1.1 Assimilation 1.2 Unconditioned 1.3 Stress2 Examples2.1 English2.1.1 Southern American English 2.1.2 Great Vowel Shift 2.1.3 Middle English 2.1.4 Old English2.2 Old Norse 2.3 Scottish Gaelic 2.4 Romance languages2.4.1 Romanian 2.4.2 Quebec French2.5 Proto-Indo-European3 See also 4 ReferencesTypes[edit] Vowel breaking may be unconditioned or conditioned
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