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Spanish Irregular Verbs
Spanish verbs are a complex area of Spanish grammar , with many combinations of tenses, aspects and moods (up to fifty conjugated forms per verb). Although conjugation rules are relatively straightforward, a large number of verbs are irregular . Among these, some fall into more-or-less defined deviant patterns, whereas others are uniquely irregular. This article summarizes the common irregular patterns. As in all Romance languages
Romance languages
, many irregularities in Spanish verbs can be retraced to Latin grammar
Latin grammar
. CONTENTS * 1 Orthographic changes * 2 Stem-vowel changes * 2.1 Diphthongization * 2.1.1 Present indicative * 2.1.2 Present subjunctive * 2.1.3 Imperative * 2.2 Vowel raising * 2.2.1 Affected forms * 2.2.2 Affected verbs * 3 Diphthongs and hiatuses * 3.1 Cambio vs
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Diphthong
A DIPHTHONG (/ˈdɪfθɒŋ/ DIF-thong or /ˈdɪpθɒŋ/ DIP-thong ; from Greek : δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a GLIDING VOWEL, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable . Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: that is, the tongue (and/or other parts of the speech apparatus ) moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In many dialects of English , the phrase no highway cowboys /ˌnoʊ ˈhaɪweɪ ˈkaʊbɔɪz/ has five distinct diphthongs, one in every syllable . Diphthongs contrast with monophthongs , where the tongue or other speech organs do not move and the syllable contains only a single vowel sound. For instance, in English, the word ah is spoken as a monophthong (/ɑː/ ), while the word ow is spoken as a diphthong in most dialects (/aʊ/ )
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Rioplatense Spanish
RIOPLATENSE SPANISH (Spanish : español rioplatense, locally castellano rioplatense) is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin
Río de la Plata Basin
of Argentina
Argentina
and Uruguay
Uruguay
. It is also referred to as River Plate Spanish or Argentine Spanish. Being the most prominent dialect to employ voseo in both speech and writing, many features of Rioplatense are also shared with the varieties spoken in Eastern Bolivia , Chile
Chile
, and Peru
Peru
. This dialect is often spoken with an intonation resembling that of the Neapolitan language
Neapolitan language
of Southern Italy, but there are exceptions
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Hiatus (linguistics)
In phonology , HIATUS (/haɪˈeɪtəs/ ; Latin: "gaping") or DIAERESIS (/daɪˈɛrᵻsᵻs/ or /daɪˈiːrᵻsᵻs/ , from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
διαίρεσις diaíresis "division") refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables , with no intervening consonant . When two adjacent vowel sounds occur in the same syllable, the result is instead described as a synaeresis . The English words hiatus and diaeresis themselves each contain a hiatus between the first and second syllables. CONTENTS * 1 Preference * 2 Avoidance * 2.1 Epenthesis * 2.2 Contraction * 2.3 Sandhi * 3 Marking * 3.1 Diaeresis * 3.2 Other ways * 4 Correption * 5 See also * 6 References PREFERENCESome languages do not have diphthongs, except optionally in rapid speech, or have a limited number of diphthongs but also numerous vowel sequences which cannot form diphthongs and thus appear in hiatus
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Real Academia Española
The REAL ACADEMIA ESPAñOLA (English: Royal Spanish Academy), generally abbreviated as RAE, is the official royal institution responsible for overseeing the Spanish language
Spanish language
. It is based in Madrid
Madrid
, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in twenty-one other hispanophone (Spanish-speaking) nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies
Association of Spanish Language Academies
. The RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is "Limpia, fija y da esplendor" (" cleans, fixes, and casts splendour"). The RAE dedicates itself to language planning by applying linguistic prescription aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and between the various territories, to ensure a common standard in accordance with Article 1 of its founding charter: "..
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Mid Vowel
A MID VOWEL (or a TRUE-MID VOWEL) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages . The defining characteristic of a mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned midway between an open vowel and a close vowel . Other names for a mid vowel are LOWERED CLOSE-MID VOWEL and RAISED OPEN-MID VOWEL, though the former phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as low as open-mid ; likewise, the latter phrase may also be used to describe a vowel that is as high as close-mid . VOWELSThe only mid vowel with a dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is the mid central vowel with ambiguous rounding . The IPA divides the vowel space into thirds, with the close-mid vowels such as or and the open-mid vowels such as or equidistant in formant space between open or and close or
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Close Vowel
A CLOSE VOWEL, also known as a HIGH VOWEL (in American terminology ), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages . The defining characteristic of a close vowel is that the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant . The term "close" (/kloʊs/ , as in the opposite of "far") is prescribed by the International Phonetic Association
International Phonetic Association
. Close vowels are often referred to as "high" vowels, as in the Americanist phonetic tradition, because the tongue is positioned high in the mouth during articulation. In the context of the phonology of any particular language, a high vowel can be any vowel that is more close than a mid vowel . That is, close-mid vowels , near-close vowels , and close vowels can all be considered high vowels
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Irregular Verb
A REGULAR VERB is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs. A verb whose conjugation follows a different pattern is called an IRREGULAR VERB. (This is one instance of the distinction between regular and irregular inflection , which can also apply to other word classes, such as nouns and adjectives.) In English , for example, verbs such as play, enter, and like are regular since they form their inflected parts by adding the typical endings -s, -ing and -ed to give forms such as plays, entering, and liked. On the other hand, verbs such as drink, hit and have are irregular since some of their parts are not made according to the typical pattern: drank and drunk (not "drinked"); hit (as past tense and past participle , not "hitted") and has and had (not "haves" and "haved"). The classification of verbs as regular or irregular is to some extent a subjective matter
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Romance Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Latin Grammar
LATIN is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order . Nouns are inflected for number and case ; pronouns and adjectives (including participles ) are inflected for number, case, and gender ; and verbs are inflected for person , number, tense , voice , and mood . The inflections are often changes in the ending of a word, but can be more complicated, especially with verbs. Thus verbs can take any of over 100 different endings to express different meanings: regō "I rule", regor "I am ruled", regere "to rule", regī "to be ruled", rēxisset "he would have ruled", and so on. Nouns can have up to five different endings if singular, and four if plural. These are called the cases of the noun. The main cases are these: nominative case rēx "the king" (subject), accusative case rēgem "the king" (object), genitive case rēgis "of the king", dative case rēgī "to the king", ablative case rēge "with the king"
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Vowel Breaking
In historical linguistics , VOWEL BREAKING, VOWEL FRACTURE, or DIPHTHONGIZATION is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong . CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Assimilation * 1.2 Unconditioned * 1.3 Stress * 2 Examples * 2.1 English * 2.1.1 Southern American English
Southern American English
* 2.1.2 Great Vowel Shift * 2.1.3 Middle English
Middle English
* 2.1.4 Old English
Old English
* 2.2 Old Norse * 2.3 Scottish Gaelic * 2.4 Romance languages
Romance languages
* 2.4.1 Romanian * 2.4.2 Quebec French * 2.5 Proto-Indo-European * 3 See also * 4 References TYPES Vowel breaking may be unconditioned or conditioned. It may be triggered by the presence of another sound or by stress, or it may triggered in no particular way
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Diaeresis (diacritic)
The DIAERESIS (UK : /daɪˈɪrᵻsᵻs/ , US : /daɪˈɛrᵻsᵻs/ dy-ERR-i-sis ; plural: DIAERESES), also spelled DIæRESIS or DIERESIS and also known as the TRéMA (also: TREMA) or the UMLAUT, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter, usually a vowel . When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle : ï. The diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis represents the phenomenon also known as diaeresis or hiatus in which a vowel letter is not pronounced as part of a digraph or diphthong . The umlaut (/ˈʊmlaʊt/ UUM-lowt ), in contrast, indicates a sound shift . These two diacritics originated separately; the diaeresis is considerably older. Nevertheless, in modern computer systems using Unicode
Unicode
, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are identical, e.g
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Inchoative Verb
An INCHOATIVE VERB, sometimes called an "INCEPTIVE" VERB, shows a process of beginning or becoming. Productive inchoative affixes exist in several languages, including the suffixes present in Latin and Ancient Greek , and consequently some Romance languages . Not all verbs with inchoative suffixes have retained their inceptive meaning. In Italian, for example, present indicative finisco 'I finish' contains the form of the suffix, while present indicative finiamo 'we finish' does not, yet the only difference in meaning is that of person subject; the suffix is now semantically inert. CONTENTS * 1 Latin * 2 Ancient Greek * 3 Finnish * 4 Germanic languages * 5 See also * 6 References LATINThe Latin language uses the suffix -sc- to show inchoative force. The suffix is normally seen in the present tense stem, and is not present in the third and fourth principal parts
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Imperfect
The IMPERFECT (abbreviated IMPERF) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state). It can therefore have meanings similar to the English "was walking" or "used to walk." It contrasts with preterite forms, which refer to a single completed event in the past. The Spanish imperfect tense can be taken in different ways, but there are really only two. Traditionally, the imperfect of languages such as Latin
Latin
and French is referred to as one of the tenses , although in fact it encodes aspectual information in addition to tense (time reference). It may be more precisely called PAST IMPERFECTIVE. English is an example of a language with no general imperfective and expresses it via different ways (see below and Imperfective aspect in English )
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Wiktionary
WIKTIONARY is a multilingual , web -based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages. It is collaboratively edited via a wiki , and its name is a portmanteau of the words wiki and dictionary . It is available in 171 languages and in Simple English . Like its sister project , Wiktionary
Wiktionary
is run by the Wikimedia Foundation
Wikimedia Foundation
, and is written collaboratively by volunteers , dubbed "Wiktionarians". Its wiki software , Media Wiki
Wiki
, allows almost anyone with access to the website to create and edit entries. Because Wiktionary
Wiktionary
is not limited by print space considerations, most of Wiktionary's language editions provide definitions and translations of words from many languages, and some editions offer additional information typically found in thesauri and lexicons
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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