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Spanish Civil War
Nationalist victoryEnd of the Second Spanish Republic Establishment of a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco FrancoBelligerents Republicans Spanish Republican Army Popular Front CNT-FAI UGT Generalitat de Catalunya Euzko Gudarostea
Euzko Gudarostea
(1936–37)Supported by:Communist International  Soviet Union  Mexico International Brigades Nationalists FET y de las JONS (from 1937) FE de la JONS (1936–37) CT (1936–37) CEDA (1936–37) RE (1936–37)Supporte
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Falange Española De Las JONS
Places called Espanola or Española include:Espanola, Florida, United States Espanola, Washington, United States Española Island, one of the Galápagos Islands Española, New Mexico, United States Espanola, Ontario, Canada Hispaniola, an island known in Spanish as "La Española" Sofronio Española, Palawan, a municipality in the PhilippinesThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Espanola. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Mexico
Coordinates: 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102United Mexican States Estados Unidos Mexicanos  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (English: "Mexican National Anthem")Capital and largest city Mexico
Mexico
City 19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133Official languagesNone at federal level[b] Spanish (de facto)Recognized regional languagesSpanish 68 native languages[1]National language Spanish[b]Religion83% Roman Catholicism 10% Other Christian 0.2% Othe
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Killed In Action
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.[1] The United States
United States
Department of Defense, for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas died of wounds (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Electoral Carlism (Restoration)
Electoral Carlism
Carlism
of Restoration was vital to sustain Traditionalism in the period between the Third Carlist War
Third Carlist War
and the Primo de Rivera dictatorship. Carlism, defeated in 1876, during the Restauración period recalibrated its focus from military action to political means and media campaigns. Accommodating themselves to political framework of the Alfonsine monarchy, the movement leaders considered elections, and especially elections to Congreso de los Diputados, primary vehicle of political mobilization. Though Carlist minority in the Cortes remained marginal and its impact on national politics was negligible, electoral campaigns were key to sustain the party until it regained momentum during the Second Spanish Republic.Contents1 Electoral system 2 Periodization 3 Program and alliances 4 Geography 5 Personalities 6 Success factors 7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 Further reading 10 External links 11 Appendix
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Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(/dʒɪˈbrɔːltə/, /dʒɪˈbrɒltə/ or other permutations; Spanish pronunciation: [xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) is a British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory
located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.[8][9] It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar
Rock of Gibraltar
at the foot of which is a densely populated city area, home to over 30,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.[10] In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar
Gibraltar
from Spain
Spain
during the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
on behalf of the Habsburg
Habsburg
claim to the Spanish throne
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Basque Country (autonomous Community)
The Basque Country (/bæsk, bɑːsk/; Basque: Euskadi [eus̺kadi]; Spanish: País Vasco [paˈiz ˈβasko]), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Basque: Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Spanish: Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava, Biscay
Biscay
and Gipuzkoa. The Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978
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Spanish Sahara
Spanish Sahara (Spanish: Sahara Español; Arabic: الصحراء الإسبانية‎ As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah) officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975. It had been one of the most recent acquisitions of the Spanish Empire, as well as one of its last remaining holdings, which had once extended from the Americas to the Philippines and East Asia. Spain gave up its Saharan possession following Moroccan demands and international pressure, mainly from United Nations resolutions regarding decolonisation. There was internal pressure from the native Sahrawi population and the claims of Morocco
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Spanish Guinea
Spanish Guinea (Spanish: Guinea Española) was a set of insular and continental territories controlled by Spain since 1778 in the Gulf of Guinea and on the Bight of Bonny, in Central Africa. It gained independence in 1968 and is known as Equatorial Guinea.Contents1 History1.1 18th—19th centuries 1.2 20th century 1.3 Agricultural economy1.3.1 Colony of Spanish Guinea 1.3.2 Decolonisation2 Colonial demographics 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Main article: History of Equatorial Guinea 18th—19th centuries[edit] The Spanish colony in the Guinea region was established in 1778, by the Treaty of El Pardo between the Spanish Empire and the Kingdom of Portugal
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Estado Novo (Portugal)
The Estado Novo (Portuguese pronunciation: [(ɨ)ʃˈtadu, -ðu ˈnovu], "New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which some considered fascist.[1] It evolved from the Ditadura Nacional formed after the coup d'état of 28 May 1926 against the democratic and unstable First Republic. Together, the Ditadura Nacional and Estado Novo are recognized as the Second Portuguese Republic. The Estado Novo, greatly inspired by conservative and authoritarian ideologies, was developed by António de Oliveira Salazar, President of the Council of Ministers of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, when he fell ill and was replaced by Marcelo Caetano. Opposed to communism, socialism, anarchism, liberalism and anti-colonialism,[a] the regime was corporatist, conservative, and nationalist in nature, defending Portugal as Catholic
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Anti-aircraft Warfare
Anti-aircraft
Anti-aircraft
warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO
NATO
as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."[1] They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons). It may be used to protect naval, ground, and air forces in any location. However, for most countries the main effort has tended to be 'homeland defence'. NATO
NATO
refers to airborne air defence as counter-air and naval air defence as anti-aircraft warfare
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Spanish West Africa
Spanish West Africa (Spanish: África Occidental Española) is a former possession in the western Sahara Desert that Spain ruled after giving much of its former northwestern African possessions to Morocco. It was created in December 1946,[citation needed] and combined Ifni, Cape Juby and Spanish Sahara.Contents1 History 2 Governors 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The first Spaniard arrived in western Africa at the end of the Middle Ages
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HMS Royal Oak (08)
Coordinates: 58°55′44″N 2°59′09″W / 58.92889°N 2.98583°W / 58.92889; -2.98583 (HMS Royal Oak) Royal Oak
Royal Oak
at anchor in 1937HistoryUnited KingdomName: Royal OakBuilder: Devonport Royal DockyardCost: £2,468,269Laid down: 15 January 1914Launched: 17 November 1914Commissioned: 1 May 1916Identification: Pennant number: 08Nickname(s): The Mighty OakFate: Sunk by U-47, 14 October 1939Status: Protected war graveGeneral characteristics (as built)Class and type: Revenge-class battleshipDisplacement:
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Battle Of Belchite (1937)
Belchite
Belchite
is a municipality and village in the province of Zaragoza, Spain, about 40 km southeast of Zaragoza. It is the capital of Campo de Belchite
Campo de Belchite
comarca (administrative region) and is located in a plain surrounded by low hills, the highest of which is Lobo. The area around Belchite
Belchite
is one of the most arid places of Aragon. In 1122 Alfonso the Battler
Alfonso the Battler
founded the Confraternity of Belchite
Confraternity of Belchite
to defend the frontier. On June 15, 1809, French and Spanish forces in the Peninsular War fought the Battle of María near Belchite. Between August 24 and September 7, 1937, loyalist Spanish Republican and rebel General Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
fought the Battle of Belchite
Belchite
in and around the town
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Communist International
The Communist International
Communist International
(Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state".[1] The Comintern was founded after the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference
Zimmerwald Conference
in which Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
had organized the " Zimmerwald
Zimmerwald
Left" against those who refused to approve any statement explicitly endorsing socialist revolutionary action, and after the 1916 dissolution of the Second International. The Comintern held seven World Congresses in Moscow between 1919 and 1935
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