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Spanish–American War
American victoryTreaty of Paris of 1898Territorial changes Spain
Spain
relinquishes sovereignty over Cuba, cedes Puerto Rico, Guam
Guam
and the Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands
to the United States
United States
for $20 millionBelligerents United States Cuban revolutionaries[a] Filipino revolutionaries[a] Spain Cuba Spanish East Indies Puerto RicoCommanders and leaders William McKinley Nelson A. Miles Theodore Roosevelt William R. Shafter George Dewey William Sampson Wesley Merritt Joseph Wheeler Charles D
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Caribbean Sea
The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
(Spanish: Mar Caribe; French: Mer des Caraïbes; Dutch: Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico
Mexico
and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America. The entire area of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, and adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2 (1,063,000 sq mi).[1][2] The sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m (25,217 ft) below sea level
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Manila
Manila
Manila
(/məˈnɪlə/; Filipino: Maynilà, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ] or [majniˈla]), officially the City of Manila
Manila
(Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynilà [luŋˈsod nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ], Spanish: Ciudad de Manila), is the capital of the Philippines
Philippines
and the most densely populated city proper in the world.[3] It was the first chartered City by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No
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Antonio Luna
Philippine–American WarManila Caloocan Second Caloocan Malolos Pulilan Calumpit Apalit Santo Tomas General
General
Antonio Luna
Antonio Luna
de San Pedro y Novicio-Ancheta (29 October 1866 – 5 June 1899), was a Filipino army general who fought in the Philippine–American War. Regarded as one of the fiercest generals of his time, he succeeded Artemio Ricarte
Artemio Ricarte
as Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. He sought to apply his background in military science to the fledgling army. A sharpshooter himself, he organized professional guerrilla soldiers later to be known as the "Luna Sharpshooters" and the "Black Guard". His three-tier defense, now known as the Luna Defense Line, gave the American troops a hard campaign in the provinces north of Manila
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Basilio Augustín
Basilio Augustín
Basilio Augustín
y Dávila[1] (February 12, 1840 – August 7, 1910) was briefly a Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines, from April 11 to July 24, 1898. During his tenure, the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
began, which he assured the Spanish would be "short" and "decisive".[2] Spanish forces were decisively defeated by the American Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay. This defeat led to the return of revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo from exile and the beginning of the second phase of the Philippine Revolution, during which, on June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence. Augustín attempted to create a consultative assembly of Filipino Ilustrados
Ilustrados
loyal to Spain
Spain
and a militia of Filipinos, as a way to support autonomy in the Philippines. He offered one million pesos to Aguinaldo but the latter refused
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Pith Helmet
The pith helmet (Spanish: salacot) also known as the safari helmet, sun helmet, topee, sola topee or topi[a] is a lightweight cloth-covered helmet made of pith material. Pith
Pith
helmets were often worn by European travelers and explorers, in the varying climates found in Africa, Southeast Asia, as well as the tropics, but have also been used in many other contexts
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Diego De Los Ríos
Diego de los Ríos
Diego de los Ríos
y Nicolau (9 April 1850 – 4 November 1911) was the last Spanish Governor-General
Governor-General
of the Philippines.Contents1 Governor-General
Governor-General
of the Philippines1.1 Government in Iloilo 1.2 Government in Zamboanga 1.3 Siege of Fort Pilar2 In Manila 3 References 4 External links Governor-General
Governor-General
of the Philippines[edit] Government in Iloilo[edit] He became the governor during the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
with the capital at Iloilo
Iloilo
on August 13, 1898. Desiring to save the Visayas
Visayas
and Mindanao
Mindanao
from the fate that had befallen Luzon, de los Rios asked Spain
Spain
to grant some reforms demanded by representative citizens of Iloilo
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Maria Christina Of Austria
Maria Christina Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria of Austria,[1] also known as Maria Christina Henrietta Désirée Félicité Rénière[2] (21 July 1858 – 6 February 1929) was Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII
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Fermín Jáudenes
Fermín Jáudenes
Fermín Jáudenes
y Álvarez (July 7, 1836 – February 11, 1915) was briefly a Spanish Governor-General
Governor-General
of the Philippines, from July 24 to August 13, 1898[1] during the
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Demetrio Castillo Duany
Demetrio Castillo Duany (November 17, 1856 – November 27, 1922) was a Cuban revolutionary, soldier, and politician. He fought in the Cuban Independence and Spanish–American wars. Demetrio Castillo Duany was born in Santiago de Cuba, into one of the leading families of the eastern region of Cuba
Cuba
and he went to France for his education. After spending some years at the Lycée of Bordeaux he went on to the United States where he studied English and entered an established business house. In 1878, at the age of twenty-two, he returned to Santiago de Cuba
Cuba
to take charge of the interests of his mother. A year later the outbreak of the "little war" obliged him to emigrate to the United States where he remained until 1885. The outbreak of the War of Independence in 1895 found him ready for the final struggle and he devoted himself to it without reserve
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Arsenio Linares Y Pombo
Arsenio Linares y Pombo
Arsenio Linares y Pombo
(1848–1914) was a Spanish military officer and government official. Born in Valencia, he earned the rank of lieutenant in 1868 and participated in operations against rebellions in Cuba, and in the Carlist Wars on mainland Spain. He occupied posts in the Philippines, Madrid, and Melilla, and later returned to Cuba. He organized the defense of Santiago de Cuba
Cuba
during the Battle of San Juan Hill. Linares failed to reinforce this position, choosing to hold nearly 10,000 Spanish reserves in the city of Santiago. Spanish entrenchments, crucial to the defense of the city, had been poorly constructed
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Captaincy General Of Puerto Rico
The Captaincy General of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(Spanish: Capitanía General de Puerto Rico) was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire, created in 1580 to provide better military management of the island of Puerto Rico, previously under the direct rule of a simple governor and the jurisdiction of Audiencia of Santo Domingo. Its creation was part of the, ultimately futile, Habsburg attempt in the late 16th century to prevent incursion into the Caribbean
Caribbean
by foreign powers. Spain also established Captaincies General in Cuba, Guatemala and Yucatán. The Captaincy General played a crucial role in the history of the Spanish Caribbean
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Signal Corps (United States Army)
The United States
United States
Army Signal Corps (USASC) develops, tests, provides, and manages communications and information systems support for the command and control of combined arms forces. It was established in 1860, the brainchild of United States
United States
Army Major Albert J. Myer, and has had an important role from the American Civil War
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Philippine Revolutionary Army
The Philippine Revolutionary Army
Army
(Filipino: Panghimagsikang Hukbo ng Pilipinas/Hukbong Pilipinong Mapaghimagsik; Spanish: Ejército Revolucionario Filipino), later renamed Philippine Republican Army (Filipino: Hukbong Katihan ng Republika ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Ejército en la República de la Filipina) was founded on March 22, 1897 in Cavite
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Valeriano Weyler, 1st Duke Of Rubí
Don Valeriano Weyler
Valeriano Weyler
y Nicolau (Catalan: Valerià Weyler i Nicolau), Marquis of Tenerife, Duke of Rubí, Grandee of Spain, (September 17, 1838 – October 20, 1930) was a Spanish general and colonial administrator and served as the Governor General
Governor General
of the Philippines and Cuba. He was noted for all the ranks and titles achieved.[1]Contents1 Early life and career 2 Canary Islands
Canary Islands
and the Philippines 3 Spain 4 Cuba 5 Return to Spain 6 ReferencesEarly life and career[edit] Weyler was born in 1838 at Palma, Majorca, Spain. He was educated in his place of birth and in Granada.[2] Weyler decided to enter the Spanish army, being influenced by his father who was a military doctor
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Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
Práxedes Mariano Mateo Sagasta y Escolar (21 July 1825 – 5 January 1903) was a Spanish civil engineer and politician who served as Prime Minister on eight occasions between 1870 and 1902—always in charge of the Liberal Party—as part of the turno pacifico, alternating with the Conservative leader Antonio Cánovas. A Freemason[citation needed], he was known for possessing an excellent oratorical talent. Biography[edit] Mateo-Sagasta was born on 21 July 1825 at Torrecilla en Cameros, province of Logroño, Spain. As a member of the Progressive Party while a student at the Civil Engineering School of Madrid
Madrid
in 1848, Sagasta was the only one in the school who refused to sign a letter supporting Queen Isabel II. After his studies, he took an active role in government. Sagasta served in the Spanish Cortes
Spanish Cortes
between 1854–1857 and 1858–1863. In 1866 he went into exile in France after a failed coup
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