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Space Telescope
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects. Space telescopes avoid many of the problems of ground-based observatories, such as light pollution and distortion of electromagnetic radiation (scintillation)
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X-ray Astronomy Satellite
An X-ray
X-ray
astronomy satellite studies X-ray
X-ray
emissions from celestial objects, as part of a branch of space science known as X-ray astronomy. Satellites are needed because X-radiation is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, so instruments to detect X-rays must be taken to high altitude by balloons, sounding rockets, and satellites. A detector is placed on a satellite which is then put into orbit well above the Earth's atmosphere. Unlike balloons, instruments on satellites are able to observe the full range of the X-ray
X-ray
spectrum. Unlike sounding rockets, they can collect data for as long as the instruments continue to operate
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Radio Window
The radio window is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation that the earth's atmosphere lets through
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Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1
(/ˈspʊtnɪk/ or /ˈspʌtnɪk/; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite
Satellite
1")[5] was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs,[6] and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis
Sputnik crisis
and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War
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Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the orbiters from NASA's Space Shuttle program
Space Shuttle program
and the third of five fully operational orbiters to be built.[4] Its first mission, STS-41-D, flew from August 30 to September 5, 1984. Over 27 years of service it launched and landed 39 times, gathering more spaceflights than any other spacecraft to date.[5] Discovery became the third operational orbiter to enter service, preceded by Columbia and Challenger.[6] It embarked on its last mission, STS-133, on February 24, 2011 and touched down for the final time at Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on March 9,[7] having spent a cumulative total of almost a full year in space. Discovery performed both research and International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS) assembly missions
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Adaptive Optics
Adaptive optics
Adaptive optics
(AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion. It is used in astronomical telescopes[1] and laser communication systems to remove the effects of atmospheric distortion, in microscopy,[2] optical fabrication[3] and in retinal imaging systems[4] to reduce optical aberrations
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Angular Resolution
Angular resolution
Angular resolution
or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution. In physics and geosciences, the term spatial resolution refers to the precision of a measurement with respect to space.Contents1 Definition of terms 2 Explanation 3 Specific cases3.1 Single telescope 3.2 Telescope array 3.3 Microscope4 Notes 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDefinition of terms[edit] Resolving power is the ability of an imaging device to separate (i.e., to see as distinct) points of an object that are located at a small angular distance or it is the power of an optical instrument to separate far away objects to separate, that are close together, into individual images
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Aperture
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture and focal length of an optical system determine the cone angle of a bundle of rays that come to a focus in the image plane. The aperture determines how collimated the admitted rays are, which is of great importance for the appearance at the image plane.[2] If an aperture is narrow, then highly collimated rays are admitted, resulting in a sharp focus at the image plane. A wide aperture admits uncollimated rays, resulting in a sharp focus only for rays coming from a certain distance. This means that a wide aperture results in an image that is sharp for things at the correct distance. The aperture also determines how many of the incoming rays are actually admitted and thus how much light reaches the image plane (the narrower the aperture, the darker the image for a given exposure time)
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Optical Window
The meaning of this term depends on the context:In astronomy, the optical window is the optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that passes through the atmosphere all the way to the ground. Most EM wavelengths are blocked by the atmosphere, so this is like a window that lets through only a narrow selection of what is out there, though the sun is particularly active in the passed wavelengths. It is called "optical" because the wavelengths we can see are all in this range. The window runs from around 300 nanometers (ultraviolet-B) at the short end up into the range the eye can use, roughly 400-700 nm and continues up through the visual infrared to around 1100 nm, which is in the near-infrared range. There are also infrared and "radio windows" that transmit some infrared and radio waves
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Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies. The electromagnetic spectrum covers electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from below one hertz to above 1025 hertz, corresponding to wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atomic nucleus. This frequency range is divided into separate bands, and the electromagnetic waves within each frequency band are called by different names; beginning at the low frequency (long wavelength) end of the spectrum these are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays at the high-frequency (short wavelength) end. The electromagnetic waves in each of these bands have different characteristics, such as how they are produced, how they interact with matter, and their practical applications
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Wilhelm Beer
Wilhelm Wolff Beer (4 January 1797 – 27 March 1850) was a banker and astronomer from Berlin, Prussia, and the brother of Giacomo Meyerbeer.[1]Contents1 Astronomy 2 Other work 3 Named after Beer 4 References 5 External linksAstronomy[edit] Beer's fame derives from his hobby, astronomy. He built a private observatory with a 9.5 cm refractor in Tiergarten, Berlin. Together with Johann Heinrich Mädler
Johann Heinrich Mädler
he produced the first exact map of the Moon
Moon
(entitled Mappa Selenographica) in 1834-1836, and in 1837 published a description of the Moon
Moon
(Der Mond nach seinen kosmischen und individuellen Verhältnissen)
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Timeline Of Artificial Satellites And Space Probes
This timeline of artificial satellites and space probes includes unmanned spacecraft including technology demonstrators, observatories, lunar probes, and interplanetary probes. First satellites from each country are included
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NASA
The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1] President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958[10] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science
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ISRO
Coordinates: 12°58′0″N 77°34′0″E / 12.96667°N 77.56667°E / 12.96667; 77.56667Indian Space Research Organization Bhāratīya Aṃtarikṣa Anusaṃdhāna Saṃgaṭhana ISRO
ISRO
logoAcronym ISROOwner Department of Space, Government of IndiaEstablished 15 August 1969; 48 years ago (1969-08-15) (1962 as INCOSPAR)Headquarters Bangalore, Karnataka, IndiaPrimary spaceport Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaMotto मानव जाति की सेवा में अंतरिक्ष प्रौद्योगिकी (Hindi) IAST: Mānav Jāti Kī Sevā Men Antarikṣa Praudyogikī (Space technology in the Service of humankind.)Administrator Dr. K
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European Space Agency
The European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA; French: Agence spatiale européenne, ASE;[4][5] German: Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states[6] dedicated to the exploration of space. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, France, ESA has a worldwide staff of about 2,000[7] and an annual budget of about €5.25 billion / US$5.77 billion (2016).[8] ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight (mainly through participation in the International Space Station
International Space Station
programme); the launch and operation of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon; Earth observation, science and telecommunication; designing launch vehicles; and maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre
at Kourou, French Guiana
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JAXA
The Japan
Japan
Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) (国立研究開発法人宇宙航空研究開発機構, Kokuritsu-kenkyū-kaihatsu-hōjin Uchū Kōkū Kenkyū Kaihatsu Kikō, literally "National Research and Development Agency on Aerospace Research and Development") is Japan's national aero-space agency. Through the merger of three previously independent organizations, JAXA was formed on 1 October 2003
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