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Soyuz 7K-OK
Soyuz 7K-OKS ( Salyut 1 ferry) Soyuz 7K-L1 (lunar) Soyuz 7K-LOK (lunar) Soyuz 7K-T (successor) Soyuz family tree: Proposed Soyuz models in white, models that flew in blue and lunar models in green. SOYUZ 7K-OK was the first generation of Soyuz spacecraft in use from 1967 to 1971. This first generation was used for the first ferry flights to in the Salyut space station program ; Soyuz spacecraft in their current generation are still in use to ferry crew to and from the ISS
ISS
. This generation is notable for the only fatalities of the Soyuz programme as of 2016 , with Soyuz 1 in 1967 (sole crew-member killed by parachute failure) and Soyuz 11 in 1971 (crew killed by depressurisation during reentry)
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Aleksei Yeliseyev
ALEKSEI STANISLAVOVICH YELISEYEV (Russian : Алексей Станиславович Елисеев; born July 13, 1934 in Zhizdra ) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew on three missions in the Soyuz programme
Soyuz programme
as a flight engineer: Soyuz 5
Soyuz 5
, Soyuz 8 , and Soyuz 10 . Aleksei's father was Lithuanian with the last name Kuraitis and Aleksei uses his mother's last name "Yeliseyev" so some regard him as also being a Lithuanian cosmonaut . A graduate of the Bauman Higher Technical School (1957) and postgraduate of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (1962). Yeliseyev worked as an engineer in Sergey Korolev 's design bureau before being selected for cosmonaut training
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Yevgeny Khrunov
YEVGENI VASSILYEVICH KHRUNOV (Russian : Евге́ний Васи́льевич Хруно́в; September 10, 1933 – May 19, 2000) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 5 /Soyuz 4 mission. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Education and career * 3 Awards * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEYevgeny Khrunov was born on September 10, 1933 to Vasily Yegorevich and Agrafena Nikolayevna. Nicknamed “Zhenya” he had five brothers and two sisters. Khrunov’s family was a farming family. Khrunov married Svetlana Sokolyuk and had a son on July 13, 1959. He was born in Prudy , Tula Oblast, Russian SFSR. EDUCATION AND CAREERKhrunov began officially being schooled in 1941. Khrunov was initially interested in pursuing farming in studies
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Igla (spacecraft Docking System)
The IGLA (Russian : Игла, "Needle") docking system was a Soviet radio telemetry system for automated docking of Soyuz spacecraft . The first prototypes were made in late 1965. On 30 October 1967, the first automated docking of Soyuz unmanned spacecraft took place. CONTENTS * 1 Problems * 2 Kurs * 3 References * 4 External links PROBLEMS * The Soyuz 15 mission was aborted when the system failed to dock to the Salyut 3 , on 26 August 1974. There was no manual backup system. * Salyut 5 , launched on June 22, 1976, was equipped with an improved radio system. On July 6, 1976, Soyuz 21 had problems undocking automatically, but was able to undock manually. Soyuz 23 failed to dock, ran out of fuel to manual dock, and returned to Earth. KURSIn 1986 Igla was succeeded by the Kurs docking system , first used on Soyuz TM-2 . REFERENCES * ^ Sven Grahn. "The IGLA radio system for rendez-vous and docking". * ^ "History"
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Photovoltaic Module
SOLAR PANELS absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity or heat . A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connect assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells . Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic
modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions (STC), and typically ranges from 100 to 365 Watts (W) . The efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 W module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 W module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed efficiency of 22% and reportedly also exceeding 24%. A single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power; most installations contain multiple modules
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ISS
The INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS) is a space station , or a habitable artificial satellite , in low Earth
Earth
orbit . Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, and the ISS is now the largest human-made body in low Earth
Earth
orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays , and other components. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton
Proton
and Soyuz rockets, and American Space Shuttles . The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology , human biology , physics , astronomy , meteorology , and other fields . The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars
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Spacesuit
A SPACE SUIT is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space , vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure , and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft. Space suits have been worn for such work in Earth orbit, on the surface of the Moon
Moon
, and en route back to Earth from the Moon. Modern space suits augment the basic pressure garment with a complex system of equipment and environmental systems designed to keep the wearer comfortable, and to minimize the effort required to bend the limbs, resisting a soft pressure garment's natural tendency to stiffen against the vacuum. A self-contained oxygen supply and environmental control system is frequently employed to allow complete freedom of movement, independent of the spacecraft
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Baikonur Cosmodrome
BAIKONUR COSMODROME (Russian : Космодро́м Байкону́р KOSMODROM BAYKONUR; Kazakh : Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı) is a spaceport located in southern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
. Baikonur
Baikonur
Cosmodrome is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility . The spaceport is located in the desert steppe of Baikonur
Baikonur
, about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Aral Sea and north of the river Syr Darya
Syr Darya
. It is near the Tyuratam railway station and is about 90 metres (300 ft) above sea level. The spaceport is currently leased by the Kazakh Government to Russia until 2050 , the spaceport is managed jointly by the Roscosmos State Corporation and the Russian Aerospace Forces
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Gagarin's Start
GAGARIN\'S START (Russian : Гагаринский старт, Gagarinskij start) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos State Corporation . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading OVERVIEWThe launchpad for the world's first human spaceflight made by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1 in 1961, the site was referred to as SITE NO.1 (Площадка №1, Ploshchadka No. 1) as the first one of its kind. It is also sometimes referred to as NIIP-5 LC1, Baikonur LC1 or GIK-5 LC1. On 17 March 1954 the Council of Ministers ordered several ministries to select a site for a proving ground to test the R-7 rocket by 1 January 1955
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Soviet Space Program
The SOVIET SPACE PROGRAM (Russian : Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR) from the 1930s until its dissolution in 1991
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Astronaut
An ASTRONAUT or COSMONAUT (Russian : космонавт) is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft . Although generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists. Starting in the 1950s up to 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military or by civilian space agencies. With the suborbital flight of the privately funded SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut
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Low Earth Orbit
A LOW EARTH ORBIT (LEO) is an orbit around Earth
Earth
with an altitude between the Earth's surface and 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi), with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes. Objects below approximately 160 kilometers (99 mi) will experience very rapid orbital decay and altitude loss. With the exception of the 24 astronauts who flew lunar flights in the Apollo program
Apollo program
during the four-year period spanning 1968 through 1972, all human spaceflights have taken place in LEO or below. The International Space Station
International Space Station
conducts operations in LEO. The altitude record for a human spaceflight in LEO was Gemini 11 with an apogee of 1,374.1 kilometers (853.8 mi). All crewed space stations to date, as well as the majority of satellites , have been in LEO
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Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31
SITE 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
, in Kazakhstan, is a launch site used by derivatives of the R-7 Semyorka missile. From 2011 onwards, it was supposed to be the launch site for manned Soyuz missions to the International Space Station
International Space Station
, when launches switched from the Soyuz-FG carrier rocket to the Soyuz-2 , which was unable to use the launch pad at Site 1/5 . However, Site 1/5 has undergone modifications that allow the manned ISS missions to be launched from it. Only few manned missions to the International Space Station
International Space Station
are launched from Site 31/6 ( Soyuz TMA-06M , Soyuz TMA-15M , Soyuz MS-02 ), when Site 1/5 is unavailable
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Salyut Programme
The SALYUT PROGRAMME (Russian : Салю́т, IPA: , meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme undertaken by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. It involved a series of four crewed scientific research space stations and two crewed military reconnaissance space stations over a period of 15 years, from 1971 to 1986. Two other Salyut launches failed. In one respect, Salyut had the task of carrying out long-term research into the problems of living in space and a variety of astronomical, biological and Earth-resources experiments, and on the other hand the USSR used this civilian program as a cover for the highly secretive military Almaz
Almaz
stations, which flew under the Salyut designation. Salyut 1
Salyut 1
, the first station in the program, became the world's first crewed space station
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SSVP Docking System
SISTEMA STYKOVKI I VNUTRENNEGO PEREKHODA, SSVP (Russian : Система стыковки и внутреннего перехода, System for docking and internal transfer) is a docking standard used by Soviet and Russian spacecraft, sometimes called RDS for Russian Docking System. It has been used on all variants of Soyuz other than the Soyuz 7K-L3 and early flights of the Soyuz 7K-OK , as well as Progress , TKS , ATV , and on all Soviet and Russian space stations . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 3 Hybrid * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYSSVP was initially conceived in 1967 by the TsKBEM design bureau for use on the then-planned OIS military space station. Though OIS never flew, in 1970 the design was selected for use on the Salyut and Almaz space stations. During its first attempted use on the Soyuz 10 mission, docking was unsuccessful due to a faulty hatch, and a failure in the automatic docking system
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