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Soviet Integrated Circuit Designation
This article describes the nomenclature for integrated circuits manufactured in the Soviet Union. 25 years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
this designation is still used by a number of manufacturers in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, and Uzbekistan. The designation uses the Cyrillic alphabet
Cyrillic alphabet
which sometimes leads to confusion where a Cyrillic letter has the same appearance as a Latin letter but is romanized as a different letter
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Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics
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Intel 8289
The Intel 8289 is a Bus arbiter
Bus arbiter
designed for Intel 8086/8087/8088/8089. The chip is supplied in 20-pin DIP package. The 8086 (and 8088) operate in maximum mode, so they are configured primarily for multiprocessor operation or for working with coprocessors. Necessary control signals are generated by the 8289. External links[edit]Jim Nadir: Designing 8086, 8088, 8089 Multiprocessing System With The 8289 Bus Arbiter, Application Note (AP-51), März 1979, Intel Corporation. 8289 Bus-Arbiter[permanent dead link]This computing article is a stub
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Digital Buffer
A digital buffer (or a voltage buffer) is an electronic circuit element that is used to isolate the input from the output, providing either no voltage or a voltage that is same as the input voltage. It draws very little current and will not disturb the original circuit. It is also called a unity gain buffer because it provides a gain of 1, which means it provides at most the same voltage as the input voltage, serving no amplification function. A voltage buffer has a very high input impedance (the opposition to current flow viewed from the load). The high input impedance is the reason a voltage buffer is used. A circuit with a voltage buffer will always draw a little amount of current because of the high input impedance of the buffer
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Three-state Logic
In digital electronics three-state, tri-state, or 3-state logic allows an output port to assume a high impedance state, effectively removing the output from the circuit, in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels. This allows multiple circuits to share the same output line or lines (such as a bus which cannot listen to more than one device at a time). Three-state outputs are implemented in many registers, bus drivers, and flip-flops in the 7400 and 4000 series
4000 series
as well as in other types, but also internally in many integrated circuits. Other typical uses are internal and external buses in microprocessors, computer memory, and peripherals
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Bubble Memory
Bubble memory
Bubble memory
is a type of non-volatile computer memory that uses a thin film of a magnetic material to hold small magnetized areas, known as bubbles or domains, each storing one bit of data. The material is arranged to form a series of parallel tracks that the bubbles can move along under the action of an external magnetic field. The bubbles are read by moving them to the edge of the material where they can be read by a conventional magnetic pickup, and then rewritten on the far edge to keep the memory cycling through the material. In operation, bubble memories are similar to delay line memory systems. Bubble memory
Bubble memory
started out as a promising technology in the 1980s, offering memory density of a similar order to hard drives but performance more comparable to core memory while lacking any moving parts. This led many to consider it a contender for a "universal memory" that could be used for all storage needs
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Charge-coupled Device
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins. In recent years CCD has become a major technology for digital imaging. In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal-oxide-semiconductors (MOS) capacitors. These capacitors are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface; the CCD is then used to read out these charges
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Mixed-signal Integrated Circuit
A mixed-signal integrated circuit is any integrated circuit that has both analog circuits and digital circuits on a single semiconductor die.[1][2][3][4] In real-life applications mixed-signal designs are everywhere, for example, a smart mobile phone. However, it is more accurate to call them mixed-signal systems. Mixed-signal ICs also process both analog and digital signals together. For example, an analog-to-digital converter is a mixed-signal circuit. Mixed-signal circuits or systems are typically cost-effective solutions for building any modern consumer electronics applications.Contents1 Introduction 2 Examples 3 Commercial examples 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingIntroduction[edit] A mixed-signal system-on-a-chip (AMS-SoC) can be a combination of analog circuits, digital circuits, intrinsic mixed-signal circuits (like ADC), and embedded software. Integrated circuits (ICs) are generally classified as digital (e.g. a microprocessors) or analog (e.g
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Analog Delay Line
An analog delay line is a network of electrical components connected in series, where each individual element creates a time difference or phase change between its input signal and its output signal. It operates on analog signals whose amplitude varies continuously. An example is a bucket-brigade device.[1] Other types of delay line include acoustic (usually ultrasonic), magnetostrictive, and surface acoustic wave devices. A series of resistor–capacitor circuits (RC circuits) can be cascaded to form a delay. A long transmission line can also provide a delay element
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Gate Array
A gate array is an approach to the design and manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) using a prefabricated chip with components that are later interconnected into logic devices (e.g. NAND gates, flip-flops,etc.) according to a custom order by adding metal interconnect layers in the factory. Similar technologies have also been employed to design and manufacture analog, analog-digital, and structured arrays, but, in general, these are not called gate arrays. Gate arrays have also been known as Uncommitted Logic Arrays (ULAs) and semi-custom chips. Design[edit] A gate array is a prefabricated silicon chip with most transistors having no predetermined function. These transistors can be connected by metal layers to form standard NAND or NOR logic gates. These logic gates can then be further interconnected into a complete circuit on the same or later metal layers
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Bucket-brigade Device
A bucket brigade or bucket-brigade device (BBD) is a discrete-time analogue delay line,[1] developed in 1969 by F. Sangster and K. Teer of the Philips Research Labs. It consists of a series of capacitance sections C0 to Cn. The stored analogue signal is moved along the line of capacitors, one step at each clock cycle. The name comes from analogy with the term bucket brigade, used for a line of people passing buckets of water. In most signal processing applications, bucket brigades have been replaced by devices that use digital signal processing, manipulating samples in digital form. Bucket brigades still see use in specialty applications, such as guitar effects. A well-known integrated circuit device around 1980, the Reticon SAD-1024[2] implemented two 512-stage analog delay lines in a 16-pin DIP. It allowed clock frequencies ranging from 1.5 kHz to more than 1.5 MHz. The SAD-512 was a single delay line version
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Bus (computing)
In computer architecture, a bus[1] (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components (wire, optical fiber, etc.) and software, including communication protocols.[2] Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple hardware connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus
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Arbiter (electronics)
Arbiters are electronic devices that allocate access to shared resources.Contents1 Bus arbiter 2 Asynchronous arbiters2.1 Asynchronous arbiters and metastability3 Synchronous arbiters 4 References 5 External linksBus arbiter[edit] A bus arbiter is a device used in a multi-master bus system to decide which bus master will be allowed to control the bus for each bus cycle. The most common kind of bus arbiter is the memory arbiter in a system bus system. A memory arbiter is a device used in a shared memory system to decide, for each memory cycle, which CPU will be allowed to access that shared memory.[1][2][3] Some atomic instructions depend on the arbiter to prevent other CPUs from reading memory "halfway through" atomic read-modify-write instructions. A memory arbiter is typically integrated into the memory controller/DMA controller. Some systems, such as conventional PCI, have a single centralized bus arbitration device that one can point to as "the" bus arbiter
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Serial Communication
In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus. This is in contrast to parallel communication, where several bits are sent as a whole, on a link with several parallel channels. Serial communication
Serial communication
is used for all long-haul communication and most computer networks, where the cost of cable and synchronization difficulties make parallel communication impractical. Serial computer buses are becoming more common even at shorter distances, as improved signal integrity and transmission speeds in newer serial technologies have begun to outweigh the parallel bus's advantage of simplicity (no need for serializer and deserializer, or SerDes) and to outstrip its disadvantages (clock skew, interconnect density)
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Monostable
A monostable multivibrator is an electronic circuit that generates an output pulse. When triggered, a pulse of pre-defined duration is produced. The circuit then returns to its stable state and produces no more output until triggered again. Monostables may be considered as a biased form of multivibrator where it is stable in one state until triggered, then unstable and will return spontaneously. If repeated application of the input pulse maintains the circuit in the unstable state, it is called a retriggerable monostable. If further trigger pulses do not affect the period, the circuit is a non-retriggerable monostable. Circuit[edit] In the monostable multivibrator, the one resistive-capacitive network (C2-R3 in figure 1 of multivibrator) is replaced by a resistive network (just a resistor). The circuit can be thought as a 1/2 astable multivibrator
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Parallel Communication
In data transmission, parallel communication is a method of conveying multiple binary digits (bits) simultaneously. It contrasts with serial communication, which conveys only a single bit at a time; this distinction is one way of characterizing a communications link. The basic difference between a parallel and a serial communication channel is the number of electrical conductors used at the physical layer to convey bits. Parallel communication
Parallel communication
implies more than one such conductor. For example, an 8-bit parallel channel will convey eight bits (or a byte) simultaneously, whereas a serial channel would convey those same bits sequentially, one at a time. If both channels operated at the same clock speed, the parallel channel would be eight times faster
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