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Southern Caucasus
Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
(Russian: Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia.[1][2] Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
roughly corresponds to modern Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
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Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
Republic
(TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР); Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); 22 April – 28 May 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey
Turkey
as well as Russian border areas.Contents1 History1.1 Background 1.2 Sejm 1.3 Formation 1.4 Dissolution2 Military 3 Government3.1 Cabinet 3.2 Legislature4 See also 5 Notes 6 BibliographyHistory[edit] Background[edit] The 1917 February Revolution
February Revolution
saw the demise of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the establishment of a provisional government in Russia
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Kars Oblast
Coat of armsMap of Kars
Kars
OblastCapital KarsHistory •  Treaty of San Stefano 1878 •  First Republic of Armenia 1918Area •  1897 16,473 km2 (6,360 sq mi)Population •  1897 290,654 Density 17.6 /km2  (45.7 /sq mi)Today part of Kars
Kars
Province Ardahan
Ardahan
Province Erzurum Province Kars
Kars
Oblast (Russian: Карсская область, Karsskaya Oblast) was one of the oblasts of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
between 1878 and 1917. Its capital was the city of Kars, presently in the Republic of Turkey. The governorate bordered with the Ottoman Empire, Batum Oblast, Tiflis Governorate, Erivan Governorate, and from 1883 to 1903 the Kutais Governorate
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Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The region covers 5,500 km2 (2,100 sq mi)[4] with a population of 410,000, bordering Armenia (border 221 km [137 mi]) to the east and north, Iran (border 179 km [111 mi]) to the south and west, and Turkey (border 8 km [5.0 mi]) to the northwest. The area that is now Nakhchivan became part of the Safavid dynasty of Iran in the 16th century. In 1828, after the last Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Nakhchivan Khanate passed from Iranian into Imperial Russian possession. After the 1917 February Revolution, Nakhchivan and its surrounding region were under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
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Petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum
is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column. It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds.[1] The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum
Petroleum
has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare)
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Manganese Ore
Manganese
Manganese
is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese
Manganese
is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which also gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite. By the mid-18th century, Swedish-German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it
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Tea
Tea
Tea
is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia
Camellia
sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.[3] After water, it is the most widely consumed drink in the world.[4] There are many different types of tea; some, like Darjeeling
Darjeeling
and Chinese greens, have a cooling, slightly bitter, and astringent flavour,[5] while others have vastly different profiles that include sweet, nutty, floral or grassy notes. Tea
Tea
originated in Southwest China, where it was used as a medicinal drink.[6] It was popularized as a recreational drink during the Chinese Tang dynasty, and tea drinking spread to other East Asian countries
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Citrus Fruits
Important species: Citrus
Citrus
maxima – Pomelo Citrus medica
Citrus medica
– Citron
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Soviet
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Abkhazia
Abkhazia
Abkhazia
(Abkhazian: Аҧсны́ Apsny [apʰsˈnɨ]; Georgian: აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti [ɑpʰxɑzɛtʰi]; Russian: Абха́зия, tr. Abkhа́ziya, IPA: [ɐpˈxazʲɪjə]) is a disputed territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains, in northwestern Georgia. It covers 8,660 square kilometres (3,340 sq mi) and has a population of around 240,000. Its capital is Sukhumi
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South Ossetia
South Ossetia
Ossetia
(/ɒˈsɛtiə/[4]) or Tskhinvali
Tskhinvali
Region (also Republic of South Ossetia
Ossetia
or the State of Alania), is a Georgian territory occupied by Russia
Russia
in the South Caucasus, located in the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast
within the former Georgian SSR.[5] It has a population of 53,000 people who live in an area of 3,900 km2, south of the Russian Caucasus, with 30,000 living in its capital city of Tskhinvali. South Ossetia
Ossetia
declared independence from the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Republic
in 1991
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Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
(/nəˌɡɔːrnoʊ kɑːrəˈbɑːk/ nə-GOR-noh kar-ə-BAHK[3]) is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh
Karabakh
and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus
Lesser Caucasus
mountains. The region is mostly mountainous and forested. Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
is a disputed territory, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan,[4] but most of the region is governed by the Republic of Artsakh
Republic of Artsakh
(formerly named Nagorno- Karabakh
Karabakh
Republic), a de facto independent state with Armenian ethnic majority established on the basis of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast
of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
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Transnistria
Transnistria (Romanian: [transˈnistria]), the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Russian: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Romanian: Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Ukrainian: Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank
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Armenian Highland
The Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
(Armenian: Հայկական լեռնաշխարհ, translit. Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,[1] or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus[1] that together form the northern sector of the Middle East. To its west is the Anatolian plateau
Anatolian plateau
which rises slowly from the lowland coast of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
and converges with the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
to the east of Cappadocia. To its southeast is the Iranian plateau, where the elevation drops rapidly by about 600 metres (2,000 ft) to 1,500 metres (5,000 ft) above sea level.[1] The Caucasus
The Caucasus
extends to the northeast of the Armenian Highlands
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Transleithania
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" (Hungarian: "a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).[2][3][4] This union of polities is sometimes denominated "Archiregnum Hungaricum" ("Arch-Kingdom of Hungary"), pursuant to Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
terminology. Pursuant to Article 1 of the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
of 1868, this territory was officially defined as "a state union of Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia"
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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